Advertisement

The Visible Hand of the Market in European Higher Education Policies

  • Orlanda TavaresEmail author
  • Cristina Sin
Chapter
Part of the Issues in Higher Education book series (IHIGHER)

Abstract

The conclusion chapter brings together the insights gained through the exploration of the multiple forces, drivers and actors that have been shaping European policy in the area of higher education. The global tendencies towards liberalisation of markets and neoliberal thinking have influenced the rhetoric about higher education and its purposes. European Union institutions, too, have facilitated this new direction for higher education, seen as an engine of the continent’s economic growth. Although not explicit in European policy, the invisible hand of the market is becoming more and more visible in European higher education, exerting pressure through the intervention of European institutions in areas not immediately and obviously related to higher education. National sovereignty, evident in the implementation of the Bologna Process, has represented an obstacle to the pursuit of this economic agenda.

References

  1. Barnett, R. (2003). Beyond All Reason—Living with Ideology in the University. Buckingham: Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Corbett, A. (2011). Ping Pong: Competing Leadership for Reform in EU Higher Education 1998–2006. European Journal of Education, 46(1), 36–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. European Commission. (2006, May 10). Europe Needs Modernised Universities. IP/06/592, Brussels.Google Scholar
  4. Garben, S. (2010). The Bologna Process and the Lisbon Strategy: Commercialisation of Higher Education Through the Back Door? Croatian Yearbook of European Law and Policy, 6(6), 209–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hawkins, D. G., Lake, D. A., Nielson, D. L., & Tierney, M. J. (Eds.). (2006). Delegation and Agency in International Organizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Karseth, B. (2006). Curriculum Restructuring in Higher Education After the Bologna Process: A New Pedagogic Regime? Revista española de educación comparada, 12, 255–284.Google Scholar
  7. Karseth, B., & Solbrekke, T. D. (2016). Curriculum Trends in European Higher Education: The Pursuit of the Humboldtian University Ideas. In S. Slaughter & B. J. Taylor (Eds.), Higher Education, Stratification, and Workforce Development (pp. 215–233). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kassim, H., & Menon, A. (2002). The Principal-Agent Approach and the Study of the European Union: A Provisional Assessment (Working Paper Series). Birmingham: European Research Institute, University of Birmingham.Google Scholar
  9. Keeling, R. (2006). The Bologna Process and the Lisbon Research Agenda: The European Commission’s Expanding Role in Higher Education Discourse. European Journal of Education, 41(2), 203–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kwikkers, P., & van Wageningen, A. (2012). A Space for the European Higher Education Area: The Guidance from the EU Court of Justice to Member States. Higher Education Policy, 25(1), 39–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Martens, K., & Wolf, K. D. (2009). Boomerangs and Trojan Horses: The Unintended Consequences of Internationalising Education Policy Through the EU and the OECD. In A. Amaral, P. Maassen, C. Musselin, & G. Neave (Eds.), European Integration and the Governance of Higher Education and Research (pp. 81–107). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Martens, K., Balzer, C., Sackmann, R., & Weyman, A. (2004). Comparing Governance of International Organisations—The EU, the OECD and Educational Policy (TransState Working Papers 7). Arbeitspapierreihe des Sfb597.Google Scholar
  13. Neave, G. (2005). On Snowballs, Slopes and the Process of Bologna: Some Testy Reflections on the Advance of Higher Education in Europe. Background paper for presentation at ARENA, University of Oslo, Centre for European Studies.Google Scholar
  14. Rüttgers, J. (2013, June 13). The Sorbonne/Bologna Project: Higher Education for the 21st Century. Keynote speech at the Second International Annual Conference of the Bologna Training Centre, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.Google Scholar
  15. Schäfer, A. (2004). Beyond the Community Method: Why the Open Method of Coordination was Introduced to EU Policy-making. European Integration Online Papers, 8(13), 1–19. http://eiop.or.at/eiop/pdf/2004-013.pdf.
  16. Scharpf, F. W. (2007). The Joint-Decision Trap Revisited. Journal of Common Market Studies, 44(4), 845–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sin, C., & Neave, G. (2016). Employability Deconstructed: Perceptions of Bologna Stakeholders. Studies in Higher Education, 41(8), 1447–1462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sin, C., Tavares, O., & Amaral, A. (2017). Accepting Employability as a Purpose of Higher Education? Academics’ Perceptions and Practices. Studies in Higher Education, 1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2017.1402174.
  19. Sin, C., Veiga, A., & Amaral, A. (2016). European Policy Implementation and Higher Education: Analysing the Bologna Process. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Smyth, J., & Shacklock, G. (1988). Re-making Teaching: Ideology, Policy and Practice. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Vallinder, T. (1994). The Judicialization of Politics—A World-Wide Phenomenon: Introduction. International Political Science Review, 15(2), 91–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Vedung, E. (1998). Policy Instruments: Typologies and Theories. In M.-L. Bemelmans-Videc, R. C. Rist, & E. Vedung (Eds.), Carrots, Sticks and Sermons: Policy Instruments and Their Evaluation (pp. 21–58). New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  23. Watts, R. L. (1991, May). The Federal Context for Higher Education. In D. Brown, P. Cazalis, & G. Jasmin (Eds.), Higher Education in Federal Systems. Proceedings of an International Colloquium held at Queen’s University (pp. 3–23). Kingston, Ontario, Canada: Institute of Intergovernmental Relations, Queen’s University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education (A3ES)LisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Centre for Research in Higher Education Policies (CIPES)MatosinhosPortugal

Personalised recommendations