2D Material Production Methods

  • Leonard W. T. Ng
  • Guohua Hu
  • Richard C. T. Howe
  • Xiaoxi Zhu
  • Zongyin Yang
  • Christopher G. Jones
  • Tawfique Hasan


The widespread use of printing of 2D materials in their relevant applications is highly dependent on the cost and scalability of their methods of production. This chapter serves as an introduction to the key methods for 2D material production and characterisation. Methods such as chemical vapour deposition, plasma cracking of hydrocarbons, intercalation, chemical exfoliation and liquid phase exfoliation are described and their relative merits are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the 2D materials relevant to ink production. The latter half of the chapter discusses commonly used processing steps and characterisation methods for the 2D materials and their respective roles in qualifying and quantifying the material produced.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonard W. T. Ng
    • 1
  • Guohua Hu
    • 1
  • Richard C. T. Howe
    • 1
  • Xiaoxi Zhu
    • 1
  • Zongyin Yang
    • 1
  • Christopher G. Jones
    • 2
  • Tawfique Hasan
    • 1
  1. 1.Cambridge Graphene CentreUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Novalia Ltd.CambridgeUK

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