Skip to main content

Soft Tissue Oral Pathology

  • 1351 Accesses

Abstract

Once a complete oral exam has been completed, coupled with an appropriate patient history, then a systematic approach should be utilized to develop a differential diagnosis for any abnormalities noted during the exam. This chapter provides a framework to obtain a focus patient history, accomplish an appropriate oral examination, and develop a differential diagnosis and recommendations for the management of specific entities using simple algorithms.

We balance probabilities and choose the most likely. It is the scientific use of the imagination.

Sherlock Holmes in—The Hound of the Baskervilles

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-91361-2_17
  • Chapter length: 50 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   139.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-91361-2
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Flowchart 17.1
Fig. 17.1
Fig. 17.2
Fig. 17.3
Fig. 17.4
Fig. 17.5
Fig. 17.6
Fig. 17.7
Fig. 17.8
Fig. 17.9
Fig. 17.10
Flowchart 17.2
Fig. 17.11
Fig. 17.12
Fig. 17.13
Fig. 17.14
Fig. 17.15
Fig. 17.16
Fig. 17.17
Fig. 17.18
Fig. 17.19
Flowchart 17.3
Fig. 17.20
Fig. 17.21
Fig. 17.22
Fig. 17.23
Fig. 17.24
Fig. 17.25
Fig. 17.26
Fig. 17.27

References

  • Al-Samadi A, Drozd A, Salem A, Hietanen J, Hayrinen-Immonen R, Konttinen YT. Epithelial cell apoptosis in recurrent aphthous ulcers. J Dent Res. 2015;94(7):928–35.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Amber KT, Bloom R, Hertl M. A systematic review with pooled analysis of clinical presentation and immunodiagnostic testing in mucous membrane pemphigoid: association of anti-laminin-332 IgG with oropharyngeal involvement and the usefulness of ELISA. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016;30(1):72–7.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Arduino PG, Surace A, Carbone M, Elia A, Massolini G, Gandolfo S, et al. Outcome of oral dysplasia: a retrospective hospital-based study of 207 patients with a long follow-up. J Oral Pathol Med. 2009;38(6):540–4.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Arnaoutakis D, Bishop J, Westra W, Califano JA. Recurrence patterns and management of oral cavity premalignant lesions. Oral Oncol. 2013;49(8):814–7.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Barker DS, Lucas RB. Localised fibrous overgrowths of the oral mucosa. Br J Oral Surg. 1967;5(2):86–92.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bhaskar SN, Jacoway JR. Pyogenic granuloma—clinical features, incidence, histology, and result of treatment: report of 242 cases. J Oral Surg. 1966;24(5):391–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bhoopathi V, Mascarenhas AK. Effectiveness of oral surgeons compared with OralCDx brush biopsy in diagnosing oral dysplastic lesions. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;69(2):428–31.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bhoopathi V, Kabani S, Mascarenhas AK. Low positive predictive value of the oral brush biopsy in detecting dysplastic oral lesions. Cancer. 2009;115(5):1036–40.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cheng YS, Gould A, Kurago Z, Fantasia J, Muller S. Diagnosis of oral lichen planus: a position paper of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2016;122(3):332–54.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ethunandan M, Mellor TK. Haemangiomas and vascular malformations of the maxillofacial region—a review. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;44(4):263–72.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Feller L, Ballyram R, Khammissa RA, Altini M, Lemmer J. Immunopathogenic oral diseases: an overview focusing on pemphigus vulgaris and mucous membrane pemphigoid. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2017;15(2):177–82.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Field EA, McCarthy CE, Ho MW, Rajlawat BP, Holt D, Rogers SN, et al. The management of oral epithelial dysplasia: The Liverpool algorithm. Oral Oncol. 2015;51(10):883–7.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fregnani ER, Pires FR, Falzoni R, Lopes MA, Vargas PA. Lipomas of the oral cavity: clinical findings, histological classification and proliferative activity of 46 cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;32(1):49–53.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Friedman M, Chow J, Toriumi DM, Strorigl T, Grybauskas V. Benign neoplasms of the oral cavity. Clin Plast Surg. 1987;14(2):223–31.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gonsalves WC, Chi AC, Neville BW. Common oral lesions: Part II. Masses and neoplasia. Am Fam Physician. 2007;75(4):509–12.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ho MW, Risk JM, Woolgar JA, Field EA, Field JK, Steele JC, et al. The clinical determinants of malignant transformation in oral epithelial dysplasia. Oral Oncol. 2012;48(10):969–76.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ho MW, Field EA, Field JK, Risk JM, Rajlawat BP, Rogers SN, et al. Outcomes of oral squamous cell carcinoma arising from oral epithelial dysplasia: rationale for monitoring premalignant oral lesions in a multidisciplinary clinic. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;51(7):594–9.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Holmstrup P, Vedtofte P, Reibel J, Stoltze K. Long-term treatment outcome of oral premalignant lesions. Oral Oncol. 2006;42(5):461–74.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jafarzadeh H, Sanatkhani M, Mohtasham N. Oral pyogenic granuloma: a review. J Oral Sci. 2006;48(4):167–75.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jascholt I, Lai O, Zillikens D, Kasperkiewicz M. Periodontitis in oral pemphigus and pemphigoid: a systematic review of published studies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;76(5):975–978.e3.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kaban LB, Mulliken JB. Vascular anomalies of the maxillofacial region. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1986;44(3):203–13.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kanatas AN, Fisher SE, Lowe D, Ong TK, Mitchell DA, Rogers SN. The configuration of clinics and the use of biopsy and photography in oral premalignancy: a survey of consultants of the British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;49(2):99–105.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kasperkiewicz M, Zillikens D, Schmidt E. Pemphigoid diseases: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Autoimmunity. 2012;45(1):55–70.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Katsikeris N, Kakarantza-Angelopoulou E, Angelopoulos AP. Peripheral giant cell granuloma. Clinicopathologic study of 224 new cases and review of 956 reported cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1988;17(2):94–9.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mehanna HM, Rattay T, Smith J, McConkey CC. Treatment and follow-up of oral dysplasia – a systematic review and meta-analysis. Head Neck. 2009;31(12):1600–9.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Montgomery-Cranny JA, Wallace A, Rogers HJ, Hughes SC, Hegarty AM, Zaitoun H. Management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis in children. Dent Update. 2015;42(6):564–6. 9–72

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Natah SS, Hayrinen-Immonen R, Hietanen J, Malmstrom M, Konttinen YT. Immunolocalization of tumor necrosis factor-alpha expressing cells in recurrent aphthous ulcer lesions (RAU). J Oral Pathol Med. 2000;29(1):19–25.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Natarajan E, Eisenberg E. Contemporary concepts in the diagnosis of oral cancer and precancer. Dent Clin N Am. 2011;55(1):63–88.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Park HK, Hurwitz S, Woo SB. Oral lichen planus: REU scoring system correlates with pain. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;114(1):75–82.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Patel S, Kumar S, Laudenbach JM, Teruel A. Mucocutaneous diseases: oral lichen planus, mucous membrane pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2016;44(9):561–70.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pflugfelder A, Weide B, Eigentler TK, Forschner A, Leiter U, Held L, et al. Incisional biopsy and melanoma prognosis: facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28(3):316–8.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Porter SR, Scully Cbe C. Aphthous ulcers (recurrent). BMJ Clin Evid. 2007;2007

    Google Scholar 

  • Savage NW, Monsour PA. Oral fibrous hyperplasias and the giant cell fibroma. Aust Dent J. 1985;30(6):405–9.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt E, Zillikens D. Pemphigoid diseases. Lancet. 2013;381(9863):320–32.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sciubba JJ. Oral mucosal diseases in the office setting—Part I: Aphthous stomatitis and herpes simplex infections. Gen Dent. 2007;55(4):347–54. quziz 55–6, 76

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Smith J, Rattay T, McConkey C, Helliwell T, Mehanna H. Biomarkers in dysplasia of the oral cavity: a systematic review. Oral Oncol. 2009;45(8):647–53.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Staines K, Greenwood M. Aphthous ulcers (recurrent). BMJ Clin Evid. 2015;2015

    Google Scholar 

  • Sultan AS, Villa A, Saavedra AP, Treister NS, Woo SB. Oral mucous membrane pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris-a retrospective two-center cohort study. Oral Dis. 2017;23(4):498–504.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Suresh L, Neiders ME. Definitive and differential diagnosis of desquamative gingivitis through direct immunofluorescence studies. J Periodontol. 2012;83(10):1270–8.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor J, McMillan R, Shephard M, Setterfield J, Ahmed R, Carrozzo M, et al. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI: a systematic review of the treatment of mucous membrane pemphigoid. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2015;120(2):161–71.e20.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Toida M, Hasegawa T, Watanabe F, Kato K, Makita H, Fujitsuka H, et al. Lobular capillary hemangioma of the oral mucosa: clinicopathological study of 43 cases with a special reference to immunohistochemical characterization of the vascular elements. Pathol Int. 2003;53(1):1–7.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Warnakulasuriya S, Reibel J, Bouquot J, Dabelsteen E. Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems: predictive value, utility, weaknesses and scope for improvement. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008;37(3):127–33.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Westley S, Seymour R, Staines K. Recurrent intra-oral herpes simplex 1 infection. Dent Update. 2011;38(6):368–70. 72–4

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Woo SB, Challacombe SJ. Management of recurrent oral herpes simplex infections. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;103(Suppl):S12.e1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yih WY, Maier T, Kratochvil FJ, Zieper MB. Analysis of desquamative gingivitis using direct immunofluorescence in conjunction with histology. J Periodontol. 1998;69(6):678–85.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michael T. Goupil .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Natarajan, E., Goupil, M.T. (2019). Soft Tissue Oral Pathology. In: Ferneini, E., Goupil, M. (eds) Evidence-Based Oral Surgery. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-91361-2_17

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-91361-2_17

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-91360-5

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-91361-2

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)