South Asian American Health: Perspectives and Recommendations on Sociocultural Influences

  • Riddhi SandilEmail author
  • Ranjana Srinivasan
Part of the Cross-Cultural Research in Health, Illness and Well-Being book series (CCRHIWB)


South Asian Americans comprise one of the largest and fastest growing Asian immigrant subgroups. However, research on the health care needs of this population remains sparse. Although South Asian communities are diverse and have distinct immigration histories, they share common cultural values including collectivism, cultural understanding of morality, and gender role expectations. These values along with systemic inequities, such as acculturative stress and race-based discrimination, can have a unique influence on the health of the South Asian Americans. It is important that health care providers are aware of the influence of cultural values on South Asian American patients, as well as be equipped to provide culturally competent health care to this population.


South Asian American Culturally competent health care Prevention Cultural values 


  1. Abraham, M. (1995). Ethnicity, gender and marital violence: South Asian women's organizations in the United States. Gender & Society, 9, 450–468. Scholar
  2. Ahmad, F., Shik, A., Vanza, R., Cheung, A., George, U., & Stewart, D. E. (2004). Popular health promotion strategies among Chinese and East Indian immigrant women. Women & Health, 40, 21–40. Scholar
  3. Ahmad, F., Rai, N., Petrovic, B., Erickson, P. E., & Stewart, D. E. (2013). Resilience and resources among south Asian immigrant women as survivors of partner violence. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 15, 1057–1064. Scholar
  4. Ahmed, S. M., & Lemkau, J. P. (2000). Cultural issues in the primary care of south Asians. Journal of Immigrant Health, 2, 89–96. Scholar
  5. Annie, R. (2014). The Longer You Stay, the Worse Your Health? A Critical Review of the Negative Acculturation Theory among Asian Immigrants. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(8), 8038–8057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Astin, F., Atkin, K., & Darr, A. (2008). Causal attributions, lifestyle change, and coronary heart disease: Illness beliefs of patients of South Asian and European origin living in the United Kingdom. Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care, 37, 91–104. Scholar
  7. Atkinson, D. R., & Gim, R. H. (1989). Asian-American cultural identity and attitudes toward mental health services. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 209–212. Scholar
  8. Ayyub, R. (2000). Domestic violence in the south Asian Muslim immigrant population in the United States. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 9, 237–248. Scholar
  9. Ballard, C. (1982). South Asian families. In R. N. Rapoport & M. P. Fogarty (Eds.), Families in Britain. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  10. Banerjee, A. T., Grace, S. L., Thomas, S. G., & Faulkner, G. (2010). Cultural factors facilitating cardiac rehabilitation participation among Canadian South Asians: A qualitative study. Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care, 39(6), 494–503. Scholar
  11. Beadnell, B., Baker, S. A., Morrison, D. M., & Knox, K. (2000). HIV/STD risk factors for women with violent male partners. Sex Roles, 42, 661–689. Scholar
  12. Bem, S. L. (1983). Gender schema theory and its implications for child development: Raising gender-aschematic children in a gender-schematic society. Signs, 8, 598–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benson, H. (1996). Timeless healing: The power and biology of belief. New York: Fireside Books.Google Scholar
  14. Berry, J. W., & Kim, U. (1988). Acculturation and mental health. In P. R. Dasen & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Health and cross-cultural psychology: Toward applications (pp. 207–236). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  15. Berry, J. W., & Annis, R. C. (1974). Acculturative stress: The role of ecology, culture and differentiation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 5, 382–406. Scholar
  16. Bhatia, S. (2008). 9/11 and the Indian diaspora: Narratives of race, place and immigrant identity. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 29, 21–39. Scholar
  17. Bhattacharya, G. (2004). Health care seeking for HIV/AIDS among South Asians in the United States. Health & Social Work, 29, 106–114 Scholar
  18. Bhopal, R., Unwin, N., White, M., Yallop, J., Walker, L., Alberti, K. G. M. M., & Tavridou, A. (1999). Heterogeneity of coronary heart disease risk factors in Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and European origin populations: Cross sectional study. British Medical Journal, 319, 215–220. Scholar
  19. Bhugra, D. (2004). Migration and mental health. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 109, 243–258. Scholar
  20. Bottorff, J. L., Johnson, J. L., Bhagat, R., Grewal, S., Balneaves, L. G., Clarke, H., & Hilton, B. A. (1998). Beliefs related to breast health practices: The perceptions of south Asian women living in Canada. Social Science & Medicine, 47, 2075–2085. Scholar
  21. Chae, D. H., Takeuchi, D. T., Barbeau, E. M., Bennett, G. G., Lindsey, J. C., Stoddard, A. M., & Krieger, N. (2008). Alcohol disorders among Asian Americans: Associations with unfair treatment, racial/ethnic discrimination, and ethnic identification (the national Latino and Asian Americans study, 2002–2003). Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62, 973–979. Scholar
  22. Chen, M. S. (2005). Cancer health disparities among Asian Americans. Cancer, 104, 2895–2902. Scholar
  23. Cheryan, S., & Monin, B. (2005). Where are you really from?: Asian Americans and identity denial. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 717–730. Scholar
  24. Choudhry, U. K. (2001). Uprooting and resettlement experiences of South Asian immigrant women. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 23, 376–393. Scholar
  25. Choudhury, P. P., Badhan, N. S., Chand, J., Chhugani, S., Choksey, R., Husainy, S., Lui, C., & Wat, E. C. (2009). Community alienation and its impact on help-seeking behavior among LGBTIQ South Asians in Southern California. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 21, 247–266. Scholar
  26. Chung, P. J., Borneo, H., Kilpatrick, S. D., Lopez, D. M., Travis, R., Jr., Lui, C., Khandwala, S., & Schuster, M. A. (2005). Parent-adolescent communication about sex in Filipino American families: A demonstration of community-based participatory research. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 5, 50–55. Scholar
  27. Cinnamon, S., Edith, C., & Gregory E., M. (2006). Written disclosure of experiences with racial discrimination and antibody response to an influenza vaccine. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 13(1), 60–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clark, R., Anderson, N. B., Clark, V. R., & Williams, D. R. (1999). Racism as a stressor for African Americans: A biopsychosocial model. American Psychologist, 54(10), 805–816. Scholar
  29. Clements, A. D., & Ermakova, A. V. (2012). Surrender to god and stress: A possible link between religiosity and health. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 4, 93–107. Scholar
  30. Daniel, M., & Wilbur, J. (2011). Physical activity among South Asian Indian immigrants: An integrative review. Public Health Nursing, 28, 389–401. Scholar
  31. Das, A. K., & Kemp, S. F. (1997). Between two worlds: Counseling South Asian Americans. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 25, 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dasgupta, S. D. (1998). Sex Roles, 38(11/12), 953–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dasgupta, S. D. (2000). Charting the course: An overview of domestic violence in the South Asian community in the United States. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 9, 173–185. Scholar
  34. Das Gupta, M. (2006). Unruly immigrants: Rights, activism, and transnational South Asian politics in the United States. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Dasgupta, S. D., & Dasgupta, S. (1996). Women in exile: Gender relations in the Asian Indian community. In S. Maira & R. Srikanth (Eds.), Contours of the Heart: South Asians Map North America (pp. 381–481). New York, NY: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Devos, T., & Banaji, M. R. (2005). American ?=White? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 447–466. Scholar
  37. Dhruvarajan, V. (1993). Ethnic cultural retention and transmission among first generation Hindu Asian Indians in a Canadian Prairie city. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 24, 63–79.Google Scholar
  38. Enas, E. A., Dhawan, J., & Petkar, S. (1996). Coronary artery disease in Asian Indians: Lessons learnt and the role of lipoprotein. Indian Heart Journal, 49, 25–34.Google Scholar
  39. Fikree, F. F., & Pasha, O. (2004). Role of gender in health disparity: The South Asian context. British Medical Journal, 328, 823–826. Scholar
  40. Frey, L. L., & Roysircar, G. (2006). South Asian and East Asian international students’ perceived prejudice, acculturation, and frequency of help resource utilization. Journal of Multicultural counseling and development, 34, 208–222. Scholar
  41. Frisbie, W. P., Cho, Y., & Hummer, R. A. (2001). Immigration and the health of Asian and Pacific islander adults in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology, 153, 372–380. Scholar
  42. Gee, G. C., & Ponce, N. (2010). Associations between racial discrimination, limited English proficiency, and health-related quality of life among 6 Asian ethnic groups in California. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 888–895. Scholar
  43. Gee, G., & Walsemann, K. (2009). Does health predict the reporting of racial discrimination or do reports of discrimination predict health? Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of youth. Social Science & Medicine, 68, 1676–1684. Scholar
  44. Gee, G. C., Spencer, M. S., Chen, J., & Takeuchi, D. (2007). A nationwide study of discrimination and chronic health conditions among Asian Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 97, 1275–1282. Scholar
  45. Gee, G. C., Ro, A., Shariff-Marco, S., & Chae, D. (2009). Racial discrimination and health among Asian Americans: Evidence, assessment, and directions for future research. Epidemiologic Reviews, 31, 130–151. Scholar
  46. Grewal, S., Bottorff, J. L., & Hilton, B. A. (2005). The influence of family on immigrant South Asian women’s health. Journal of Family Nursing, 11, 242–263. Scholar
  47. Gudykunst, W. B. (2001). Asian American ethnicity and communication. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  48. Hannay, D. R. (1980). Religion and health. Social Science & Medicine. Part A: Medical Sociology, 14, 683–685. Scholar
  49. Heise, L., Ellsberg, M., & Gottmoeller, M. (2002). A global overview of gender-based violence. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 78, S5–S14. Scholar
  50. Hsiao, A. F., Wong, M. D., Goldstein, M. S., Becerra, L. S., Cheng, E. M., & Wenger, N. S. (2006). Complementary and alternative medicine use among Asian-American subgroups: Prevalence, predictors, and lack of relationship to acculturation and access to conventional health care. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 12, 1003–1010. Scholar
  51. Hsu, W. C., Araneta, M. R. G., Kanaya, A. M., Chiang, J. L., & Fujimoto, W. (2015). BMI cut points to identify at-risk Asian Americans for type 2 diabetes screening. Diabetes Care, 38, 150–158. Scholar
  52. Hurwitz, E. J. H., Gupta, J., Liu, R., Silverman, J. G., & Raj, A. (2006). Intimate partner violence associated with poor health outcomes in U.S. south Asian women. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 8, 251–261. Scholar
  53. Hussain-Gambles, M., Atkin, K., & Leese, B. (2004). Why ethnic minority groups are under-represented in clinical trials: A review of the literature. Health & Social Care in the Community, 12, 382–388. Scholar
  54. Ibrahim, F. A. (1994). Suicidal behavior in Asian American women. In S. S. Canetto & D. Lester (Eds.), Women and suicidal behavior. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  55. Ibrahim, F. A., Ohnishi, H., & Sandhu, D. S. (1997). Asian American identity development: A culture specific model for South Asian Americans. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 25, 34–50. Scholar
  56. Inman, A. G., Ladany, N., Constantine, M. G., & Morano, C. K. (2001). Development and preliminary validation of the cultural values conflict scale for South Asian women. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 17–27. Scholar
  57. Inman, A. G., Yeh, C. J., Madan-Bahel, A., & Nath, S. (2007). Bereavement and coping of South Asian families post 9/11. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 35, 101–115. Scholar
  58. Jones, J. W. (2004). Religion, health, and the psychology of religion: How the research on religion and health helps us understand religion. Journal of Religion and Health, 43, 317–328. Scholar
  59. Kalra, P., Srinivasan, S., Ivey, S., & Greenlund, K. (2004). Knowledge and practice: The risk of cardiovascular disease among Asian Indians. Results from focus groups conducted in Asian Indian communities in Northern California. Ethnicity & Disease, 14, 497–504.Google Scholar
  60. Khandelwal, M. (1988). In L. Hibayashi (Ed.), Teaching Asian American: Diversity and the problem of community. Boulder: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  61. Kim, B. S., Atkinson, D. R., & Umemoto, D. (2001). Asian cultural values and the counseling process current knowledge and directions for future research. The Counseling Psychologist, 29, 570–603. Scholar
  62. Kitano, H. H. L., & Matsushima, N. (1981). Counseling Asian Americans. In P. B. Pedersen, J. G. Draguns, W. J. Lonner, & J. E. Trimble (Eds.), Counseling across cultures (pp. 163–180). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  63. Kuo, W. H. (1995). Coping with racial discrimination: The case of Asian Americans. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 18, 109–127. Scholar
  64. Landrine, H., Klonoff, E. A., Corral, I., Fernandez, S., & Roesch, S. (2006). Conceptualizing and measuring ethnic discrimination in health research. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 29, 79–94. Scholar
  65. Lee, R. M. (2003). Do ethnic identity and other-group orientation protect against discrimination for Asian Americans? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 133–141. Scholar
  66. Lewis, T. T., Aiello, A. E., Leurgans, S., Kelly, J., & Barnes, L. L. (2010). Self-reported experiences of everyday discrimination are associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels in older African-American adults. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 24, 438–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Liang, C. T., Li, L. C., & Kim, B. S. (2004). The Asian American racism-related stress inventory: Development, factor analysis, reliability, and validity. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51, 103–114. Scholar
  68. Madan-Bahel, A. (2008). Sexual health and bollywood films: A culturally based program for South Asian teenage girls. Youngstown: Cambria Press.Google Scholar
  69. Mathews, R. (2000). Cultural patterns of south Asian and southeast Asian Americans. Intervention in School and Clinic, 36, 101–104. Scholar
  70. Mehta, S. (1998). Relationship between acculturation and mental health for Asian Indian immigrants in the United States. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 124, 61–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Midlarsky, E., Venkatramani-Kothari, A., & Plante, M. (2006). Domestic violence in the Chinese and south Asian immigrant communities. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1087, 279–300. Scholar
  72. Misra, A., & Vikram, N. K. (2004). Insulin resistance syndrome (metabolic syndrome) and obesity in Asian Indians: Evidence and implications. Nutrition, 20, 482–491. Scholar
  73. Misra, R., Patel, T. G., Davies, D., & Russo, T. (2000). Health promotion behaviors of Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants in the United States. Journal of Immigrant Health, 2, 223–230. Scholar
  74. Nair, M., & Prabhakaran, D. (2012). Why Do South Asians Have High Risk for CAD? Global Heart, 7(4), 307–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nancy, K., Dana, C., Katie, L., Pamela D., W., Anna, K., & Mahzarin, B. (2010). Combining Explicit and Implicit Measures of Racial Discrimination in Health Research. American Journal of Public Health, 100(8), 1485–1492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nelson, M. E., Rejeski, W. J., Blair, S. N., Duncan, P. W., Judge, J. O., King, A. C., et al. (2007). Physical activity and public health in older adults: Recommendations from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 116, 1094–1105. Scholar
  77. Park, S. Y., Anastas, J., Shibusawa, T., & Nguyen, D. (2014). The impact of acculturation and acculturative stress on alcohol use across Asianimmigrant subgroups. Substance Use & Misuse, 49, 922–931. Scholar
  78. Pew Research Center. (2012b). Overview: Religious Affiliation. Retrieved December 7, 2015, from
  79. Pew Research Center. (2015). Appendix D: Detailed tables. Retrieved December 7, 2015, from
  80. Pulerwitz, J., Amaro, H., Jong, W. D., Gortmaker, S. L., & Rudd, R. (2002). Relationship power, condom use and HIV risk among women in the USA. AIDS Care, 14, 789–800. Scholar
  81. Quina, K., Harlow, L. L., Morokoff, P. J., Burkholder, G., & Deiter, P. J. (2000). Sexual communication in relationships: When words speak louder than actions. Sex Roles, 42, 523–549. Scholar
  82. Raj, A., & Silverman, J. (2002). Violence against immigrant women the roles of culture, context, and legal immigrant status on intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women, 8, 367–398. Scholar
  83. Raj, A., Liu, R., McCleary-Sills, J., & Silverman, J. G. (2005). South Asian victims of intimate partner violence more likely than non-victims to report sexual health concerns. Journal of Immigrant Health, 7, 85–91. Scholar
  84. Redfield, R., Linton, R., & Herskowitz, M. T. (1936). Memorandum for the study of acculturation. American Anthropologist, 38, 149–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Samuel, E. (2009). Acculturative stress: South Asian immigrant women’s experiences in Canada’s Atlantic provinces. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 7(1), 16–34. Scholar
  86. Sandil, R., Robinson, M., Brewster, M. E., Wong, S., & Geiger, E. (2015). Negotiating multiple marginalizations: Experiences of South Asian LGBQ individuals. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 21, 76–88. Scholar
  87. Saran, P. (1985). The Asian Indian Experience in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Press.Google Scholar
  88. Sheth, M. (1995). Asian Indian Americans. In P. G. Min (Ed.), Asian American: Contemporary trends and issues (pp. 1690–1198). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  89. Sherman, A., & Simonton, S. (2001). Religious involvement among cancer patients (pp. 167–194). Psychological Perspectives: Faith and Health. Scholar
  90. Srinivasan, S., & Guillermo, T. (2000). Toward improved health: Disaggregating Asian American and native Hawaiian/Pacific islander data. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 1731–1734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sriskantharajah, J., & Kai, J. (2007). Promoting physical activity among South Asian women with coronary heart disease and diabetes: What might help? Family Practice, 24, 71–76. Scholar
  92. Sudsuang, R., Chentanez, V., & Veluvan, K. (1991). Effect of Buddhist meditation on serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, pulse rate, lung volume and reaction time. Physiology & Behavior, 50, 543–548. Scholar
  93. Sue, D., & Sue, D. W. (1993). Ethnic identity: Cultural factors in the psychological development of Asians in America. In D. R. Atkinson, G. Morten, & D. W. Sue (Eds.), Counseling American minorities: A cross-cultural perspective (pp. 199–210). Dubuque: W. C. Brown.Google Scholar
  94. Sweta, T. (2005). Asian Indian Immigrant Women. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 11(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Szymanski, D. M., & Sung, M. R. (2013). Asian cultural values, internalized heterosexism, and sexual orientation disclosure among Asian American sexual minority persons. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 7, 257–273. Scholar
  96. Tang, T. S., Solomon, L. J., & McCracken, L. M. (2000). Cultural barriers to mammography, clinical breast exam, and breast self-exam among Chinese-American women 60 and older. Preventive Medicine, 31, 575–583. Scholar
  97. Tirodkar, M. A., Baker, D. W., Makoul, G. T., Khurana, N., Paracha, M. W., & Kandula, N. R. (2011). Explanatory models of health and disease among south Asian immigrants in Chicago. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 13, 385–394. Scholar
  98. Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (2000). Prevalence and consequences of male-to-female and female-to-male intimate partner violence as measured by the National Violence against Women Survey. Violence Against Women, 6, 142–161. Scholar
  99. Troxel, W. M., Matthews, K. A., Bromberger, J. T., & Sutton-Tyrrell, K. (2003). Chronic stress burden, discrimination, and subclinical carotid artery disease in African American and Caucasian women. Health Psychology, 22, 300–309. Scholar
  100. Unger, J. B., Cruz, T. B., Rohrbach, L. A., Ribisl, K. M., Baezconde-Garbanti, L., Chen, X., & Johnson, C. A. (2000). English language use as a risk factor for smoking initiation among Hispanic and Asian American adolescents: Evidence for mediation by tobacco-related beliefs and social norms. Health Psychology, 19, 403–410. Scholar
  101. Uppaluri, C. R., Schumm, L. P., & Lauderdale, D. S. (2001). Self-reports of stress in Asian immigrants: effects of ethnicity and acculturation. Ethnicity & Disease, 11, 107–114.Google Scholar
  102. U.S. Census Bureau. (2012). The Asian Population: 2010. Retrieved August 25, 2015, from
  103. Utsey, S. O., Ponterotto, J. G., Reynolds, A. L., & Cancelli, A. A. (2000). Racial discrimination, coping, life satisfaction, and self-esteem among African Americans. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78, 72–80. Scholar
  104. Vega, W. A., & Amaro, H. (1994). Latino outlook: Good health, uncertain prognosis. Annual Review of Public Health, 15, 39–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Walker, G. J., Caperchione, C. M., Mummery, W. K., & Chau, S. (2015). Examining the role of acculturation in the leisure-time physical activity of South Asians living in Canada. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18, 156–160. Scholar
  106. Weerasinghe, S., & Numer, M. (2011). A life-course exploration of the social, emotional and physical health behaviours of widowed South Asian immigrant women in Canada: Implications for health and social programme planning. International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, 6, 42–56. Scholar
  107. Whitty, C., Brunner, E., Shipley, M., Hemingway, H., & Marmot, M. (1999). Differences in biologic risk factors for cardiovascular disease between three ethnic groups in the Whitehall II study. Atherosclerosis, 142, 279–286. Scholar
  108. Williams, R. (1988). Religions of immigrants from Indian and Pakistan. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  109. Williams, E. D., Nazroo, J. Y., Kooner, J. S., & Steptoe, A. (2010). Subgroup differences in psychosocial factors relating to coronary heart disease in the UK South Asian population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 69, 379–387. Scholar
  110. World Health Organization. (2002). Understanding and addressing violence against women. Retrieved from:
  111. World Health Organization. (2008). Preventing and addressing intimate partner violence against migrant and ethnic minority women: the role of the health sector. Retrieved from:
  112. Yoshihama, M., Bybee, D., & Blazevski, J. (2012). Day-to-day discrimination and health among Asian Indians: A population-based study of Gujarati men and women in metropolitan Detroit. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 35, 471–483. Scholar
  113. Zhan, H. J., & Montgomery, R. J. (2003). Gender and elder care in China: The influence of filial piety and structural constraints. Gender & Society, 17, 209–229. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Teachers CollegeColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations