Calculation of Intensity Profiles Behind a Shock Wave Traveling in Air at Speeds Exceeding 12 km/s

  • A. LemalEmail author
  • S. Matsuyama
  • S. Nomura
  • H. Takayanagi
  • K. Fujita
Conference paper


This paper presents the recent efforts in computing the flow field and radiation behind a shock wave traveling in air at speeds exceeding 12 km/s to support the exploration mission currently considered at JAXA. The influence of the electron number density on the thermodynamic properties and ionization equilibrium constants was highlighted and quantified. The thermochemistry model in JAXA CFD code was upgraded and the flow field was computed. The populations of the excited states radiating in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) were computed with a collisional-radiative (CR) model. Subsequently, the radiative properties of the strongest radiators were computed with the models and database of JAXA spectral solver. The computed VUV post-shock intensity profiles were compared with shock-tube radiation measurements obtained in facilities operated at representative flight conditions. The influence of electron-impact excitation and radiative processes is discussed.



The authors are indebted to Dr. A. M. Brandis and Dr. B. A. Cruden (NASA Ames Research Center) for providing their shock-tube radiation measurements and the resolution functions. Experimental devices were provided by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) under the grant Kaken-Hi 26289326 and were gratefully acknowledged. Computer resources were provided by JAXA Supercomputer Server (JSS) and were gratefully acknowledged. Thanks are due Mrs. S. Nishimura (graduate student at Shizuoka University) for operating JAXA HVST facility under a tight schedule.


  1. 1.
    K. Fujita et al., Assessment of Convective and Radiative Heating for Jupiter Trojan Sample Return Capsule, AIAA paper 2014–2673, 2014Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. William, Etude des processus physico-chimiques dans les écoulements détendus à haute enthalpie. Ph. D thesis (in French), Université de Provence, France, 2000Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Soubrie, Prise en compte de l’ionisation et du rayonnement dans les rentrées terrestres et martiennes. Ph. D thesis (in French), ISAE-ENSAE, France, 2006Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Park, Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1990), pp. 30–80Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C.O. Johnston et al., J. Spacecr. Rocket. 45(5), 879–890 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Panesi et al., J. Thermophys. Heat Transf. 25(3), 361–373 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y. Ogino et al., Computational Code for Air Plasma Flow Field with Atomic and Molecular Processes, AIAA paper 2012–3308, 2012Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    B. Lopez et al., J. Thermophys. Heat Transf. 27(3), 404–413 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Annaloro, A. Bultel, Phys. Plasmas 21(12), 15–31 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Lemal et al., J. Thermophys. Heat Transf. 30(1), 226–239 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Lemal et al., J. Thermophys. Heat Transf. 30(1), 197–210 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Lemal et al., J. Thermophys. Heat Transf. 32(1), 256–261 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. N. Gupta et al., A Review of Reaction Rates, Thermodynamic and Transport Properties for the 11-species Air Model for Chemical and Thermal Nonequilibrium Calculations to 30000K, NASA Technical Memorandum 101528, 1989Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Park, J. Thermophys. Heat Transf. 7(3), 385–398 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Fujita et al., Development of JAXA Optimized Nonequilibrium Aerothermodynamics Analysis Code, Technical report (in Japanese), JAXA, 2009Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Annaloro et al., Phys. Plasma 19, 1–15 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Capitelli et al., Tables of Internal Partition Functions and Thermodynamic Properties of High-temperature Mars-atmosphere Species from 50K to 50000K, Technical report STR-246, European Space Agency-ESTEC, 2005Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    C. O. Johnston et al., Aerothermodynamic characteristics of 16–22 km/s Earth Entry, AIAA paper 2015–3110, 2015Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Gordon, B. Mac Bride, Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions and Applications. Part 1: Analysis, Reference Publication 1311, NASA, 1994Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. Tanaka et al., J. IAPS 21(1) (2013)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    K. Fujita, T. Abe, Spradian: Structured Package for Radiation Analysis. Theory and Application, Technical report (in Japanese), JAXA, 1997Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. M. Brandis, C. O. Johnston, Caracterization of Stagnation-point Heat Flux for Earth Entry, AIAA paper 2014–2374, 2014Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. M. Brandis, B. A. Cruden, Benchmark Shock Tube Experiments of Radiative Heating Relevant to Earth Re-entry, AIAA paper 2017–1145, 2017Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Nishimura et al., VUV Air Radiation Measurements at Shock Speed Exceeding 12 km/s, in Proceedings of the 7th International RHTG Workshop, Stuttgart, Germany, Nov. 2016Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Lemal
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Matsuyama
    • 1
  • S. Nomura
    • 1
  • H. Takayanagi
    • 1
  • K. Fujita
    • 1
  1. 1.JAXA, Chofu Aerospace CentreTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations