Advanced Neurosurgical Interventions

  • Sharona Ben-HaimEmail author
  • Ahmed M. Raslan
  • Andre Machado


There are many etiologies causing the various phenotypic patterns of facial pain, some of which are more likely to be refractory to both medical management and often to first and sometimes second lines of more common surgical interventions. These surgical interventions usually target the peripheral component of the trigeminal nerve from its most distal aspect in the subcutaneous nerve endings of the face, to the location of its cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglion located within Meckel’s cave, to its entry into the brainstem. When these approaches fail to provide relief, or when destructive interventions exacerbate pain, advanced neurosurgical interventions in central nervous system targets should be considered.


Facial pain Motor cortex stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for pain Nucleus caudalis dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) lesioning Nucleus caudalis tractotomy Mesencephalotomy Neurosurgery 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharona Ben-Haim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ahmed M. Raslan
    • 2
  • Andre Machado
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of California San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neurological SurgeryOHSUPortlandUSA
  3. 3.The Cleveland Clinic, Center for Neurological RestorationClevelandUSA

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