Medical Management of Head and Face Pain

  • Johnathan H. GoreeEmail author
  • Christopher S. Fiedorek
  • Ruben G. Alexander
  • Boris Spektor


No longer regarded as a potent, universal remedy for all pain, opiates have fallen out of favor in the most recent pain literature. Increases in addiction, rising overdose deaths, systemic side effects, and the discovery of opiate-induced hyperalgesia have illuminated the need for non-opiate alternatives for all chronic pain disorders. During this chapter we will explore the literature behind many of these alternative, non-opiate medications and their use for nonmalignant pain of the head and neck.


Headache Migraine Tension-type headache Medical management Narcotics Non-opiate analgesics Antiepileptics Anti-inflammatory meds Corticosteroids Antidepressants Botox Migraine abortives 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johnathan H. Goree
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christopher S. Fiedorek
    • 1
  • Ruben G. Alexander
    • 2
  • Boris Spektor
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

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