Advertisement

Supporting Parents to Promote Emotion Regulation Abilities in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A SCERTS Model Perspective

  • Amy C. LaurentEmail author
  • Barry M. Prizant
  • Kathleen S. Gorman
Chapter
Part of the Autism and Child Psychopathology Series book series (ACPS)

Abstract

Emotional regulation is a key developmental capacity concerned with the regulation of physiological arousal, emotion, and attention. Effective emotional regulation is associated with social success, academic readiness, and pro-social behaviors. Young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have documented emotional regulatory challenges. These difficulties include challenges in managing emotions, focusing attention, inhibiting reactions, delaying gratification, and seeking comfort in conventional ways. Some of these difficulties are associated with neurological differences and cognitive learning style differences, which are associated with an ASD diagnosis. Other challenges may be associated with ASD-related social learning differences, which impact the nature and effectiveness of parent/child interactions that are geared toward expanding a young child’s emotional regulatory abilities. An emotional regulation approach to intervention represents a relatively new focus in intervention for young children diagnosed with ASD and holds the promise of supporting active engagement in everyday activities resulting in more emotionally satisfying social interactions between children and their caregivers. A brief framework for assessment of young children’s emotional regulatory abilities and selection of developmentally appropriate emotional regulatory objectives utilizing the SCERTS® Model is presented. Parent coaching, embedding teaching opportunities within natural routines, and modeling are discussed as developmentally appropriate intervention techniques for young children at presymbolic and symbolic levels of communication.

Keywords

Emotional regulation Regulation strategies Transactional Developmental Parent coaching Self-regulation Mutual regulation SCERTS Emotion Physiological arousal Attention Challenging behavior 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bachevalier, J., & Loveland, K. A. (2006). The orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit and self-regulation of social-emotional behavior in autism. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30(1), 97–117 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.07.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baron, G., Groden, J., Groden, G., & Lipsitt, L. P. (2006). Stress and coping in autism. New York, NY: Oxford university press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Begeer, S., Koot, H. M., Rieffe, C., Meerum Terwogt, M., & Stegge, H. (2008). Emotional competence in children with autism: Diagnostic criteria and empirical evidence. Developmental Review, 28(3), 342–369 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2007.09.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ben Shalom, D., Mostofsky, S. H., Hazlett, R. L., Goldberg, M. C., Landa, R. J., Faran, Y., … Hoehn-Saric, R. (2006). Normal physiological emotions but differences in expression of conscious feelings in children with high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(3), 395–400 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0077-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clifford, S. M., Hudry, K., Elsabbagh, M., Charman, T., & Johnson, M. H. (2013). Temperament in the first 2 years of life in infants at high-risk for autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(3), 673–686 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1612-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cole, P. M., Ledonne, E. N., & Tan, P. Z. (2013). A longitudinal examination of maternal emotions in relation to young Children’s developing self-regulation. Parenting, Science and Practice, 13(2), 113–132 https://doi.org/10.1080/15295192.2012.709152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cole, P. M., Martin, S. E., & Dennis, T. a. (2004). Emotion regulation as a scientific construct: Methodological challenges and directions for child development research. Child Development, 75(2), 317–333 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00673.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. DeGangi, G. (2000). Pedicatric disorders of regulation in Affet and behavior: A Therapist’s guide to assessment and treatment. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  10. Domingue, B., Cutler, J., & McTarnaghan, J. (2000). The experience of autism in the lives of families. In Autism spectrum disorders: A transaction developmental perspective. Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  11. Dunn, W. (2011). Best practice occupational therapy for children and families in community settings. Philadelphia, PA: Slack, Inc.Google Scholar
  12. Dunn, W., Cox, J., Foster, L., Mische-Laweson, L., & Tanquaray, J. (2012). Impact of an integrated intervention on parental competence and children’s participation with autism. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 36(5), 520–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eisenberg, N., Gershoff, E. T., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S. A., Cumberland, A., Losoya, S., … Murphy, B. C. (2001). Mothers’ emotional expressivity and Children’s behavior problems and social competence: Mediation through Children’s regulation. Developmental Psychology, 37(4), 475–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eisenberg, N., & Spinrad, T. L. (2004). Emotion-related regulation: Sharpening the definition. Child Development, 75(2), 334–339 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00674.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., & Eggum, N. D. (2010). Emotion-related self-regulation and its relation to children’s maladjustment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 495–525 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.121208.131208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eisenberg, N., & Sulik, M. J. (2012). Emotion-related self-regulation in children. Teaching of Psychology (Columbia, Mo.), 39(1), 77–83 https://doi.org/10.1177/0098628311430172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., Morris, A. S., Fabes, R. A., Cumberland, A., Reiser, M., … Losoya, S. (2003). Longitudinal relations among parental emotional expressivity, children’s regulation, and quality of socioemotional functioning. Developmental Psychology, 39(1), 3–19 https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.39.1.3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fitzgerald, M., & Bellgrove, M. a. (2006). The overlap between alexithymia and Asperger’s syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(4), 573–576 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0096-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Foster, L., Dunn, W., & Mische-Laweson, L. (2012). Coaching mothers of children with autism: A qualitative study for occupational therapy practice. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 1–11 https://doi.org/10.3109/01942638.2012.747581
  20. Fox, N. A. (1994). The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerations. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 2–3, Serial No. 240.Google Scholar
  21. Gomez, C. R., & Baird, S. (2005). Identifying early indicators for autism in self-regulation difficulties. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20(2), 106–116 https://doi.org/10.1177/10883576050200020101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Graham, F., Rodger, S., & Ziviani, J. (2009). Coaching parents to enable children’s participation: An approach for wroking with parents and their children. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 56(1), 16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grolnick, W., Bridges, L., & Connell, J. (1996). Emotion regulation in two-year-olds: Strategies and emotional expression in four contexts. Child Development, 67(3), 928–941 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8706536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grolnick, W., Kurowski, C., McMenamy, J., Rivkin, I., & Bridges, L. (1998). Mothers’ strategies for regulating their toddlers’ distress. Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 437–450 Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0163638398900182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gulsrud, A. C., Jahromi, L. B., & Kasari, C. (2010). The co-regulation of emotions between mothers and their children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(2), 227–237 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0861-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hubley, P., & Trevarthen, C. (1979). Sharing a task in infancy. In I. Uzgiris (Ed.), Social Interaction during infancy: New directions for child development (pp. 57–80). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  27. Jahromi, L. B., Bryce, C. I., & Swanson, J. (2013). The importance of self-regulation for the school and peer engagement of children with high-functioning autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(2), 235–246 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2012.08.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jahromi, L. B., Meek, S. E., & Ober-Reynolds, S. (2012). Emotion regulation in the context of frustration in children with high functioning autism and their typical peers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 53(12), 1250–1258 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02560.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kochanska, G., Murray, K. T., & Harlan, E. T. (2000). Effortful control in early childhood: Continuity and change, antecedents, and implications for social development. Developmental Psychology, 36(2), 220–232 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10749079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Konstantareas, M. M., & Stewart, K. (2006). Affect regulation and temperament in children with autism Spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(2), 143–154 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-005-0051-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kopp, C. (1982). Antecedents of self-regulation: A developmental perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18(2), 199–214 Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/dev/18/2/199/CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Laurent, A., & Rubin, E. (2004). Challenges in emotional regulation in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. Topics in Language Disorders, 24(4), 286–297 Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Challenges+in+Emotional+Regulation+in+Asperger+Syndrome+and+High+Functioning+Autism#0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Leekam, S. R., Prior, M. R., & Uljarevic, M. (2011). Restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders: A review of research in the last decade. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 562–593 https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Li-Grining, C. P. (2012). The role of cultural factors in the development of Latino preschoolers’ self-regulation. Child Development Perspectives, 6(3), 210–217 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00255.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Loveland, K. A. (2005). Social-emotional impairment and self-regulation in autism spectrum disorders. In J. Nadel & D. Muir (Eds.), Emotional development:Recent research Advances (pp. 365–390). Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Mazefsky, C., Herrington, J., Siegel, M., Scarpa, A., Maddox, B. B., Scahill, L., & White, S. W. (2013). The role of emotion regulation in autism Spectrum disorder. Journal of the American, 52(7), 679–688 Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890856713003080Google Scholar
  37. McClelland, M. M., & Cameron, C. E. (2012). Self-regulation in early childhood: Improving conceptual clarity and developing ecologically valid measures. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 136–142 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00191.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McWilliam, R. A. (2010). Working with families of young children with special needs. New York, NY: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  39. National Research Council. (2001). Educating children with autism. (C. (Committee on E. I. for C. with A. Lord & J. P. McGee, Eds.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  40. National Research Council. Committee on Integrating Science of Early Childhood Development. (2000). In D. A. Shonkoff (Ed.), From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, D.C: National academy press.Google Scholar
  41. Prizant, B. M., & Laurent, A. C. (2012a). Preventing problem behaviors for students with developmental challenges through an emotional regulation approach (ERA)- Guide #1- Presymbolic. Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
  42. Prizant, B. M., & Laurent, A. C. (2012b). Preventing problem behaviors for students with developmental challenges through an emotional regulation approach (ERA)- Guide #2 Symbolic. Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
  43. Prizant, B. M., & Meyer, E. C. (1993). Socioemotional aspects of communication disorders in young children and their families. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 2, 56–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Prizant, B. M., Wetherby, A. M., Rubin, E., & Laurent, A. C. (2003). The SCERTS model: A transactional, family-centered approach to enhancing communication and socioemotional abilities of children with autism spectrum disorder. Infants & Young Children, 16(4), 296–316 https://doi.org/10.1097/00001163-200310000-00004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Prizant, B. M., Wetherby, A. M., Rubin, E., Laurent, A. C., & Rydell, P. J. (2006a). The SCERTS model: A comprehensive educational approach for children with autism Spectrum disorders. Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  46. Prizant, B. M., Wetherby, A. M., Rubin, E., Laurent, A. C., & Rydell, P. J. (2006b). The SCERTS model: A comprehensive educational approach for children with autism spectrum disorders (Vol. 1 Assessment). Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  47. Raver, C. (1996). An examination of joint attention among low-income mothers and their 2-year-olds. Early Development and Parenting, 5(4), 225–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rothbart, M., & Bates, J. (1998). Temperament. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology, Social, emotional, and personality development (Vol. 3, 5th ed., pp. 105–176). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  49. Saarni, C. (1998). Issues of cultural meaningfulness in emotional development. Developmental Psychology, 34(4), 647–652 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9681256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sameroff, A. J., & Fiese, B. H. (1990). Transactional regulation and early intervention. In S. J. Meisels & J. P. Shonkoff (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood Intervnetion (pp. 119–149). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Samyn, V., Roeyers, H., & Bijttebier, P. (2011). Effortful control in typically developing boys and in boys with ADHD or autism spectrum disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(2), 483–490 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2010.12.038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sanders, M. R., & Mazzucchelli, T. G. (2013). The promotion of self-regulation through parenting interventions. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 16(1), 1–17 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-013-0129-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Spinrad, T. L., Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., Fabes, R. a., Valiente, C., Shepard, S. a., … Guthrie, I. K. (2006). Relation of emotion-related regulation to children’s social competence: A longitudinal study. Emotion (Washington, D.C.), 6(3), 498–510 https://doi.org/10.1037/1528-3542.6.3.498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Spinrad, T. L., Eisenberg, N., & Gaertner, B. M. (2007). Measures of effortful regulation for young children. Infant Mental Health Journal, 28(6), 606–626 https://doi.org/10.1002/imhjCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Supplee, L. H., Skuban, E. M., Trentacosta, C. J., Shaw, D. S., & Stoltz, E. (2011). Preschool boys’ development of emotional self-regulation strategies in a sample at risk for behavior problems. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 172(2), 95–120 https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2010.510545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Trentacosta, C. J., & Shaw, D. S. (2009). Emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior: Developmental associations from early childhood to early adolescence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(3), 356–365 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tronick, E. (2002). Emotions and emotional communication in infants. American Psychologist, 44(2), 112–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wetherby, A. M., Guthrie, W., Woods, J., Schatschneider, C., Holland, R. D., Morgan, L., & Lord, C. (2014). Parent-implemented social intervention for toddlers with autism: An RCT. Pediatrics, 134(6), 1084–1093 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-0757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. White, B. A., Jarrett, M. a., & Ollendick, T. H. (2012). Self-regulation deficits explain the link between reactive aggression and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 35(1), 1–9 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-012-9310-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Whitman, T. L. (2004). The development of autism: A self regulatory perspective. London, UK: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  62. Williford, A. P., Vick Whittaker, J. E., Vitiello, V. E., & Downer, J. T. (2013). Children’s engagement within the preschool classroom and their development of self-regulation. Early Education and Development, 24(2), 162–187 https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2011.628270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self -regulation (pp. 13–39). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amy C. Laurent
    • 1
    Email author
  • Barry M. Prizant
    • 2
  • Kathleen S. Gorman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Rhode IslandKingstonUSA
  2. 2.Artists and Scientists as Partners, Department of Theatre Arts and Performance StudiesBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA

Personalised recommendations