Connecting the Streams
- 280 Downloads
For policy change to occur, a policy window must open to allow a policy entrepreneur to connect their preferred solution to a salient problem. This chapter shows that, while a policy window did open in 2013 and 2014, it was narrower and harder for policy actors to navigate than the unambiguous opportunity for change that was present in 2007. Within this complex and unpredictable environment, none of the observed attempts at entrepreneurship were unqualified successes, despite some notable achievements.
KeywordsPolicy entrepreneurship Policy windows Advocacy coalitions
- Beyers, J., & De Bruycker, I. (2017). Lobbying Makes (Strange) Bedfellows: Explaining the Formation and Composition of Lobbying Coalitions in EU Legislative Politics. Political Studies, 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032321717728408.
- Blanqué, P., et al. (2015). Investor Letter to Companies on EU Climate Policy Positions. Available at: http://www.iigcc.org/publications/publication/investor-letter-to-companies-on-eu-climate-policy-positions. Accessed 19 July 2016.
- Boasson, E. L., & Wettestad, J. (2013). EU Climate Policy: Industry, Policy Interaction and External Environment. Oxford: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- BUSINESSEUROPE. (2016). ASGroup—Our Partner Companies. Available at: https://www.businesseurope.eu/about-us/asgroup-our-partner-companies. Accessed 4 Aug 2016.
- CEZ Group. (2014). CEOs Initiative. CEZ.cz. Available at: http://www.cez.cz/en/cez-group/cez-group/public-affairs/ceos-initiative.html. Accessed 8 June 2016.
- Coen, D., & Richardson, J. (2009). Institutionalizing and Managing Intermediation in the EU. In D. Coen & J. Richardson (Eds.), Lobbying the European Union: Institutions, Actors, and Issues (pp. 337–350). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Crouch, D. (2014). Lobbyist’s Take on Renewables Causes It to Lose Friends. FT.com. Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/9b05ad2a-5ab0-11e4-b449-00144feab7de. Accessed 1 Sept 2015.
- E3G. (2014). Driving Change and Opportunity Through Strategic Influencing. Available at: https://www.e3g.org/docs/Driving_Strategic_Change_-_Westminster_Hub_March_2014.pdf. Accessed 25 July 2016.
- ENGIE. (2014). People Need to Accept the Concept of Paying for the Climate. Available at: http://www.engie.com/en/group/opinions/groups-strategy/people-need-to-accept-the-concept-of-paying-for-the-climate/. Accessed 6 Sept 2016.
- Eurelectric. (2009). Power Choices: Pathways to Carbon-Neutral Electricity in Europe by 2050. Available at: www.eurelectric.org/PowerChoices2050/. Accessed 4 Apr 2016.
- European Commission. (2012). Directive 2012/27/EU on Energy Efficiency. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32012L0027&from=EN. Accessed 1 Dec 2016.
- European Commission. (2013). Green Paper: A 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy Policies. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regdoc/rep/1/2013/EN/1-2013-169-EN-F1-1.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2014.
- European Council. (2014). European Council (23 and 24 October 2014) Conclusions on 2030 Climate and Energy Policy Framework. Available at: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/145397.pdf. Accessed 24 Oct 2014.
- Fairbrass, J. (2013). Natural Allies or Strange Bedfellows? The Emerging Relations Between Business, Civil Society, and Government in Response to the Challenge of Climate Change. In E. Monaghan et al. (Eds.), New Climate Alliances (pp. 19–22). Birmingham: Centre for Low Carbon Futures.Google Scholar
- Greek Presidency of the Council of the European Union. (2014). Informal Meeting of Energy Ministers Athens, 15–16 May 2014 ‘Energy Security’ Discussion Paper. Available at: http://gr2014.eu/sites/default/files/DiscussionPaperonEnergySecurity.pdf. Accessed 27 Apr 2016.
- Harvey, F. (2013). Europe’s Climate Chief Vows to Fight on to Save Emissions Trading Scheme. The Guardian. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2013/apr/17/europe-climate-chief-vow-save-emissions-trading. Accessed 14 June 2016.
- Kingdon, J. W. (2010). Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies (2nd ed.). Harlow: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Magritte Group. (2013). Press Release: Heads of 12 Leading European Energy Companies Propose Concrete Measures to Rebuild Europe’s Energy Policy. Available at: https://www.engie.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/12CEO_VA_v4.pdf. Accessed 19 Feb 2014.
- de Schoutheete, P. (2012). The European Council. In J. Peterson & M. Shackleton (Eds.), The Institutions of the European Union (pp. 43–67). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- UNFCCC. (2012). Durban Climate Change Conference—November 2011. Available at: http://unfccc.int/meetings/durban_nov_2011/meeting/6245/php/view/reports.php#c. Accessed 26 Feb 2018.
- Warren, A. (2011). Some Targets Are More Equal Than Others. Available at: http://www.ukace.org/2011/05/some-targets-are-more-equal-than-others/. Accessed 10 June 2016.
- Zahariadis, N. (2007). Multiple Streams Framework: Structure, Prospects, Limitations. In P. A. Sabatier (Ed.), Theories of the Policy Process (pp. 65–92). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar