The Problem Stream

Chapter
Part of the Progressive Energy Policy book series (PEP)

Abstract

This chapter describes what Kingdon calls the ‘problem stream’. The chapter sets out the debate surrounding the connected issues of ‘energy’ and ‘climate’ topics and outline the issues vying for European policymakers’ attention in the year or so leading up to the European Commission’s 2014 Communication on the Energy and Climate Framework for 2030. The conceivable list of potential problems relevant to the policy area may be extremely large but the list that actually receives attention is necessarily much shorter. The chapter focusses on problems of energy supply, environmental sustainability and the cost of energy.

Keywords

Problem definition Emissions trading Energy security Renewable energy Climate leadership European Union 

References

  1. Andresen, T. (2014). German Utilities Hammered in Market Favoring Renewables—Bloomberg Business. Bloomberg.com. Available at: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-08-11/german-utilities-hammered-in-market-favoring-renewables. Accessed 1 Dec 2015.
  2. Awerbuch, S. (2006). Portfolio-Based Electricity Generation Planning: Policy Implications for Renewables and Energy Security. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11(3), 693–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Babiker, M. H. (2005). Climate Change Policy, Market Structure, and Carbon Leakage. Journal of International Economics, 65(2), 421–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beckman, K. (2013). ‘Progressive Energy Companies’ Versus Magritte Group. Available at: http://www.energypost.eu/progressive-energy-companies-versus-margritte-group/. Accessed 1 Feb 2014.
  5. BMWi. (2014). EEG 2014. Available at: http://www.bmwi.de/DE/Themen/Energie/Erneuerbare-Energien/eeg-2014.html. Accessed 31 July 2016.
  6. Caldecott, B., & McDaniels, J. (2014). Stranded Generation Assets: Implications for European Capacity Mechanisms, Energy Markets and Climate Policy Working Paper. Available at: http://www.smithschool.ox.ac.uk/research/sustainable-finance/publications/Stranded-Generation-Assets.pdf. Accessed 10 Mar 2014.
  7. Cañizares, C., Rouco, L., & Andersson, G. (2009). Angle, Voltage and Frequency Stability. In A. Gomez-Exposito, A. J. Conejo, & C. Canizares (Eds.), Electric Energy Systems: Analysis and Operation. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  8. Carbon Brief. (2013). Climate Rhetoric: What’s an Energy Trilemma? Available at: https://www.carbonbrief.org/climate-rhetoric-whats-an-energy-trilemma. Accessed 10 Oct 2016.
  9. Chazan, G., & Wiesmann, G. (2013). Shale Gas Boom Sparks EU Coal Revival. FT.com. Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/d41c2e8a-6c8d-11e2-953f-00144feab49a. Accessed 10 Oct 2016.
  10. Chester, L. (2010). Conceptualising Energy Security and Making Explicit Its Polysemic Nature. Energy Policy, 38(2), 887–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chyong, C.-K., & Tcherneva, V. (2015). Europe’s Vulnerability on Russian Gas. Available at: http://www.ecfr.eu/article/commentary_europes_vulnerability_on_russian_gas. Accessed 1 Nov 2016.
  12. Cornot-Gandolphe, S. (2015). US Coal Exports: The Long Road to Asian Markets. Available at: https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/CL-21.pdf. Accessed 28 Nov 2016.
  13. Dallos, G. (2014). Locked in the Past: Why Europe’s Big Energy Companies Fear Change. Hamburg: Greenpeace.Google Scholar
  14. DECC. (2013). 2030 Green Paper Response. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/210659/130703_response_for_publication.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2014.
  15. Dickel, R., et al. (2014). Reducing European Dependence on Russian Gas: Distinguishing Natural Gas Security from Geopolitics. Oxford: Oxford Institute of Energy Studies. Google Scholar
  16. Eichhammer, W. (2013). Analysis of a European Reference Target System for 2030. Energy Savings 2030: On the 2050 Pathway. Available at: http://www.isi.fraunhofer.de/isi-wAssets/docs/x/de/publikationen/Fraunhofer-ISI_ReferenceTargetSystemReport.pdf. Accessed 11 Feb 2016.
  17. Euracoal. (2014). Why Less Climate Ambition Would Deliver More for the EU. Brussels.Google Scholar
  18. EuroACE. (2013). EuroACE Position Paper on EU Post 2020 Climate and Energy Policy: EuroACE Supports a Binding 2030 Energy Efficiency Target. Brussels.Google Scholar
  19. European Commission. (2006). A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy. Available at: http://europa.eu/documents/comm/green_papers/pdf/com2006_105_en.pdf. Accessed 14 Apr 2014.
  20. European Commission. (2013a). Draft Commission Staff Working Document Impact Assessment for a 2030 Climate and Energy Policy Framework.Google Scholar
  21. European Commission. (2013b). Member States’ Competitiveness Performance and Implementation of EU Industrial Policy. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/DocsRoom/documents/110/attachments/1/translations/en/renditions/native. Accessed 17 Feb 2016.
  22. European Commission. (2014). Energy prices and costs in Europe. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/20140122_communication_energy_prices.pdf. Accessed 7 Feb 2014.
  23. European Commission. (2014a). Energy Prices and Costs in Europe. Accessed 7 Feb 2014. Google Scholar
  24. European Commission. (2014b). Impact Assessment—A Policy Framework for Climate and Energy in the Period from 2020 up to 2030. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/smart-regulation/impact/ia_carried_out/docs/ia_2014/swd_2014_0015_en.pdf. Accessed 13 July 2015.
  25. European Commission. (2014c). Proposal for the Establishment and Operation of a Market Stability Reserve for the Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme and Amending Directive 2003/87/EC. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52014PC0020&from=en. Accessed 24 Nov 2015.
  26. European Council. (2009). 29/30 October 2009: Conclusions. Available at: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/110889.pdf. Accessed 31 Mar 2016.
  27. European Parliament. (2014a). Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council Concerning the Establishment and Operation of a Market Stability Reserve for the Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme and Amending Directive 2003/87/EC. Brussels.Google Scholar
  28. Eurostat. (2014). Energy Balance Sheets 2011–2012. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/3217494/5785109/KS-EN-14-001-EN.PDF/16c0ac97-7dd6-4694-b22d-e77a36cb4e86. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.
  29. Eurostat. (2016). Primary Production of Energy by Resource. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en&pcode=ten00076&plugin=1. Accessed 22 Feb 2018.
  30. EWEA. (2014). 5 Priorities for a European Energy Union. Available at: http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/files/library/publications/position-papers/EWEA-EU-Energy-Union-5-Priorities.pdf. Accessed 27 Apr 2018.
  31. Falkner, R. (2014). Global Environmental Politics and Energy: Mapping the Research Agenda. Energy Research & Social Science, 1, 188–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fitch-Roy, O. W. (2016). An Offshore Wind Union? Diversity and Convergence in European Offshore Wind Governance. Climate Policy, 16(5), 586–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Friends of the Earth. (2013). Comments on the EC Green Paper ‘A 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy Policies’. Brussels.Google Scholar
  34. Fürstenwerth, D., Pescia, D., & Litz, P. (2015). The Integration Costs of Wind and Solar Power. Agora Energiewende. Available at: https://www.agora-energiewende.de/fileadmin/Projekte/2014/integrationskosten-wind-pv/Agora_Integration_Cost_Wind_PV_web.pdf. Accessed 18 Feb 2016.
  35. Gardner, P., Fitch-Roy, O. W., & Platt, R. (2012). Beyond the Bluster: Why Wind Power Is an Effective Technology. London: IPPR.Google Scholar
  36. GDF Suez. (2013). Consultation on a 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy Policies GDF SUEZ Answer. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/consultations/doc/com_2013_0169_green_paper_2030_en.pdf. Accessed 19 Feb 2016.
  37. Government of Poland. (2013). 2030 Green Paper Response. Brussels.Google Scholar
  38. Greek Presidency of the Council of the European Union. (2014). Informal Meeting of Energy Ministers Athens, 15–16 May 2014 ‘Energy Security’ Discussion Paper. Available at: http://gr2014.eu/sites/default/files/DiscussionPaperonEnergySecurity.pdf. Accessed 27 Apr 2016.
  39. Groen, L., Niemann, A., & Oberthür, S. (2012). The EU as a Global Leader? The Copenhagen and Cancun UN Climate Change Negotiations, 8(2), 173–191.Google Scholar
  40. Helm, D. (2005). European Energy Policy: Securing Supplies and Meeting the Challenge of Climate Change. Oxford.Google Scholar
  41. Hone, D. (2015). Putting the Genie Back: Why Carbon Pricing Matters. Whitefox.Google Scholar
  42. IEA. (2016). Gas Trade Flow in Europe. Available at: https://www.iea.org/gtf/. Accessed 11 Apr 2016.
  43. IFIEC. (2014). Manifesto: Europe’s Manufacturing Industry CEOs Call Upon Heads of State to Streamline 2030 Strategy Towards Growth and Jobs. Brussels.Google Scholar
  44. Joyce, A. (2014). Speech to the Informal Energy Ministers Meetings—Athens—16th May 2014: Financing of Energy Efficiency Measures. Athens.Google Scholar
  45. Juergens, I., Barreiro-Hurlé, J., & Vasa, A. (2013). Identifying Carbon Leakage Sectors in the EU ETS and Implications of Results. Climate Policy, 13(1), 89–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Karnitschnig, M. (2015). Germany’s Green Power Meltdown. politico.eu. Available at: https://www.politico.eu/article/germanys-green-power-meltdown/. Accessed 22 Feb 2018.
  47. Kingdon, J. W. (2010). Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies (2nd ed.). Harlow: Pearson.Google Scholar
  48. Kitzing, L., Mitchell, C., & Morthorst, P. E. (2012). Renewable Energy Policies in Europe: Converging or Diverging? Energy Policy, 51, 192–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Koch, N., & Mama, H. B. (2016). European Climate Policy and Industrial Relocation: Evidence from German Multinational Firms. Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Delivery.cfm/SSRN_ID2868283_code1302307.pdf?abstractid=2868283&mirid=1. Accessed 5 Dec 2016.
  50. Laing, T. et al. (2013). Assessing the Effectiveness of the EU Emissions Trading System (CCCEP Working Paper, 126).Google Scholar
  51. Łoskot-Strachota, A., & Zachmann, G. (2014). Rebalancing the EU-Russia-Ukraine Gas relationship. Available at: https://www.econstor.eu/dspace/bitstream/10419/106321/1/812740270.pdf. Accessed 11 Feb 2016.
  52. Lund, H., & Mathiesen, B. V. (2009). Energy System Analysis of 100% Renewable Energy Systems—The Case of Denmark in Years 2030 and 2050. Energy, 34(5), 524–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Magritte Group. (2013). Press Release: Heads of 12 Leading European Energy Companies Propose Concrete Measures to Rebuild Europe’s Energy Policy. Available at: https://www.engie.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/12CEO_VA_v4.pdf. Accessed 19 Feb 2014.
  54. Marcu, A. et al. (2013). Carbon Leakage: An Overview. Available at: https://www.ceps.eu/system/files/SpecialReportNo79CarbonLeakage_0.pdf. Accessed 11 Feb 2016.
  55. Mitchell, C., Bauknecht, D., & Connor, P. M. (2006). Effectiveness Through Risk Reduction: A Comparison of the Renewable Obligation in England and Wales and the Feed-in System in Germany. Energy Policy, 34(3), 297–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mitchell, C., & Watson, J. (2013). Introduction: Conceptualising Energy Security. In C. Mitchell, J. Watson, & J. Britton (Eds.), New Challenges in Energy Security: The UK in a Multipolar World (pp. 1–21). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Monaghan, A. (2005). Russian Oil and EU Energy Security. Conflict. Available at: https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/96125/05_Nov.pdf. Accessed 19 Feb 2016.
  58. Oberthür, S. (2011). The European Union’s Performance in the International Climate Change Regime. Journal of European Integration, 33, 667–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Oberthür, S., & Roche Kelly, C. (2008). EU Leadership in International Climate Policy: Achievements and Challenges. The International Spectator, 43(3), 35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Platts. (2013). German Coal-Fired Power Rises Above 50% in First-Half 2013 Generation Mix—Electric Power | Platts News Article & Story. Available at: http://www.platts.com/latest-news/electric-power/london/german-coal-fired-power-rises-above-50-in-first-26089429. Accessed 18 Feb 2016.
  61. van Renssen, S. (2014b). Split Emerges in the Commission Over Energy-Efficiency Measures. Politico. Available at: http://www.politico.eu/article/split-emerges-in-the-commission-over-energy-efficiency-measures/. Accessed 8 May 2014.
  62. Ringel, M. (2006). Fostering the Use of Renewable Energies in the European Union: The Race Between Feed-in Tariffs and Green Certificates. Renewable Energy, 31(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. del Río, P., & Mir-Artigues, P. (2012). Support for Solar PV Deployment in Spain: Some Policy Lessons. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(8), 5557–5566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sandbag. (2013). Consultation Response—2030 Energy and Climate Framework Green Paper. Available at: https://crowdsourcing.simpolproject.eu/static/staticdata/gpc/consultations/sandbag.pdf. Accessed 30 Nov 2015.
  65. Sensfuß, F., Ragwitz, M., & Genoese, M. (2008). The Merit-Order Effect: A Detailed Analysis of the Price Effect of Renewable Electricity Generation on Spot Market Prices in Germany. Energy Policy, 36(8), 3076–3084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Stevens, P. (2012). The ‘Shale Gas Revolution’: Developments and Changes. London: Chatham House.Google Scholar
  67. The Coalition for Energy Savings. (2013). A Binding Energy Savings Target for 2030: The Cornerstone for Mutually Supporting Climate and Energy Policies. Available at: https://www.eurima.org/uploads/ModuleXtender/Publications/105/20131011_Coalition_position_on_2030.pdf. Accessed 7 Apr 2016.
  68. The Economist. (2013). European Utilities: How to Lose Half a Trillion Euros. The Economist. Available at: http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21587782-europes-electricity-providers-face-existential-threat-how-lose-half-trillion-euros. Accessed 16 Apr 2014.
  69. The Key Stakeholders Alliance for ETS Review. (2007). Lowering Production Is No Benefit for the Environment, Says European Industry. Brussels.Google Scholar
  70. Valentine, S. V. (2011). Emerging Symbiosis: Renewable Energy and Energy Security. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(9), 4572–4578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Vattenfall. (2013). 2030 Green Paper Response. Brussels.Google Scholar
  72. Wathelet, M. et al. (2014, June 17). Letter Calling for a Proposal on a Binding Energy Efficiency Target for 2030.Google Scholar
  73. Weiss, J. (2014). Solar Energy Support in Germany: A Closer Look. Washington, DC: Brattle.Google Scholar
  74. Winkler, J., Magosch, M., & Ragwitz, M. (2018). Effectiveness and Efficiency of Auctions for Supporting Renewable Electricity—What Can We Learn from Recent Experiences? Renewable Energy, 119, 473–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. World Energy Council. (2015). World Energy Trilemma Priority Actions on Climate Change and How to Balance the Trilemma. Available at: http://www.worldenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/2015-World-Energy-Trilemma-Priority-actions-on-climate-change-and-how-to-balance-the-trilemma.pdf. Accessed 18 Feb 2016.
  76. Zachmann, G. (2015). When Will the EU Switch Away from Coal? Available at: http://bruegel.org/2015/12/when-will-the-eu-switch-away-from-coal/. Accessed 28 Nov 2016.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Energy Policy GroupUniversity of ExeterPenrynUK
  2. 2.Norwich Business SchoolUniversity of East AngliaNorwichUK

Personalised recommendations