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Involvement of Heat Shock Proteins in Invertebrate Anhydrobiosis

  • Alexander Nesmelov
  • Elena Shagimardanova
  • Takahiro Kikawada
  • Oleg GusevEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Heat Shock Proteins book series (HESP, volume 15)

Abstract

The anhydrobiosis is a unique state notable for a complete lack of detectable metabolic activity and an ability to withstand extreme stresses. It is induced, as its name suggests, by severe water loss, extending up to complete desiccation. Despite of severe stress, organisms entering anhydrobiosis normally retain their viability. This phenomena is ensured by a variety of protective mechanisms, including expression of protective proteins. The latter include Heat shock proteins (Hsp), which have long been recognized for their importance in a wide range of stress protection mechanisms. This chapter summarizes the theory and available experimental data, both suggesting the importance of Hsp in invertebrate anhydrobiosis. However, most of experimental data are the results of expression studies. We show that they are insufficient to make robust conclusions on the role of Hsp in anhydrobiosis. To date, only two robust evidences based on loss of-function-experiments are available, leaving for the future research the complete elucidation of Hsp function in anhydrobiosis.

Keywords

Anhydrobiosis Anhydrobiotic engineering Desiccation stress Gene expression Heat shock proteins Invertebrates Molecular chaperons 

Abbreviations

ArHsp22 and ArHsp21

Small heat shock proteins

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

CRISPR/Cas9

Protein-9 nuclease (Cas9) associated with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DnaJ (Hsp40)

Chaperone DnaJ, also known as Hsp40

F08H9.3 and F08H9.4

Small heat shock protein genes

geLC-MS/MS

In-gel tryptic digestion followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Gy

Gray of ionizing radiation

HSC

Heat shock cognate protein

hsp

Heat shock protein genes

Hsp

Heat shock proteins

hsp70

Genes of a heat shock proteins of a particular family

Hsp70

Heat shock proteins of a particular family

IR

Ionizing radiation

LD50

Dose lethal to 50% of treated organisms

LEA

Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

mRNA

Messenger RNA

Mt-shsp17.2

Small heat shock protein gene

p26

Small heat shock protein

PCD

Programmed cell death

qPCR

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

RNAi

RNA interference

SDS-PAGE

Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

sHsp

Small heat shock protein

shsp

Small heat shock protein gene

TRET1

Trehalose transporter

Notes

Acknowledgements

We apologize to those researchers who have contributed to the elucidation of the role of Hsp in anhydrobiosis whose work we have not cited due to space limitations. We are grateful to Dr. A. Tunacliffe for critical reading of the manuscript and valuable comments. This work was performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University in the analysis of Hsp putative functions, and was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (№ 17-44-07002) in the analysis of Hsp functions in P. vanderplanki. The work was also supported by the JSPS KAKENHI (Grant Numbers JP17H01511, JP25128714 and JP16K07308) in the analysis of Hsp in tardigrades and nematodes.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Nesmelov
    • 1
  • Elena Shagimardanova
    • 1
  • Takahiro Kikawada
    • 2
    • 3
  • Oleg Gusev
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Fundamental Medicine and BiologyKazan Federal UniversityKazanRussia
  2. 2.Division of Biotechnology, Institute of Agrobiological SciencesNational Institute of Agriculture and Food Research OrganizationTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Frontier SciencesThe University of TokyoChibaJapan
  4. 4.KFU-RIKEN Translational Genomics UnitRIKENYokohamaJapan

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