Skip to main content

Emotional Intelligence in Sports and Physical Activity: An Intervention Focus

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Emotional Intelligence in Education

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is twofold: first, to introduce the reader to the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in sports and physical activity, and second, to have an intervention focus achieved through applied activities that enable the development of different dimensions of EI. The chapter begins with an introduction to the theory that underpins EI in sports – the tripartite model comprising knowledge, ability, and trait levels. Subsequently, measurement issues are addressed in regard to instruments measuring the ability and trait aspects of EI. In continuation, the role of EI is discussed within the sport performance domain, specifically in athletes, coaches, and officials, as well as its role in physical activity. Finally, an applied perspective of EI training in sport performance is presented, along with EI training through sports and physical activity. Thirteen EI training activities are suggested that are based on the tripartite model and target the five main dimensions of EI: identifying, expressing, understanding, regulating, and using emotions. Such activities aim to contribute to the dissemination of EI training at school, which may have an important further impact on performance, society, and health policies.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 139.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. 1.

    Interview retrieved on the 3rd of February 2016 –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JA7G7AV-LT8.

  2. 2.

    Alternatively, a video by John Kabat-Zinn can be found on YouTube, in which the listener is lead through the meditation.

References

  • Barlow, A., & Banks, A. P. (2014). Using emotional intelligence in coaching high-performance athletes: A randomised controlled trial. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 7(2), 132–139. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2014.939679

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bar-On, R. (1997). The Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): Technical manual. Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems, Inc..

    Google Scholar 

  • Brasseur, S., Grégoire, J., Bourdu, R., & Mikolajczak, M. (2013). The Profile of Emotional Competence (PEC): Development and validation of a self-reported measure that fits dimensions of emotional competence theory. PLoS One, 8, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062635

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Campo, M., Laborde, S., & Mosley, E. (2016). Emotional intelligence training in team sports. Journal of Individual Differences, 37(3), 152–158. https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001/a000201

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carney, D. R., Cuddy, A. J., & Yap, A. J. (2010). Power posing: Brief nonverbal displays affect neuroendocrine levels and risk tolerance. Psychological Science, 21(10), 1363–1368. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797610383437

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Crombie, D., Lombard, C., & Noakes, T. D. (2009). Emotional intelligence scores predict team sports performance in a national cricket competition. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 4, 209–224. https://doi.org/10.1260/174795409788549544

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crombie, D., Lombard, C., & Noakes, T. D. (2011). Increasing emotional intelligence in cricketers: An intervention study. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 6, 69–86. Retrieved from <Go to ISI>://WOS:000288297400015.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cuddy, A. J., Wilmuth, C. A., Yap, A. J., & Carney, D. R. (2015). Preparatory power posing affects nonverbal presence and job interview performance. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(4), 1286–1295. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038543

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Day, A. L., & Carroll, S. A. (2008). Faking emotional intelligence (EI): Comparing response distortion on ability and trait-based EI measures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, 761–784.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dosseville, F., Laborde, S., & Bernier, M. (2014). Athletes’ expectations with regard to officiating competence. European Journal of Sport Science, 14(Suppl 1), 448–455. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2012.713006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eberspächer, H. (2012). Mentales Training: Das Handbuch für Trainer und Sportler. Munich, Germany: Copress Sport.

    Google Scholar 

  • Elfenbein, H. A. (2006). Learning in emotion judgments: Training and the cross-cultural understanding of facial expressions. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 30(1), 21–36. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10919-005-0002-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York, NY: Bantam Books, Inc..

    Google Scholar 

  • Hanin, Y. (2000). Emotions in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hwang, S., Feltz, D. L., & Lee, J.-D. (2013). Emotional intelligence in coaching: Mediation effect of coaching efficacy on the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2013.763489

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Full catastrophe living. How to cope with stress, pain and illness using mindfulness meditation. London: Piatkus.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kajbafnezhad, H., Ahadi, H., Heidarie, A. R., Askari, P., & Enayati, M. (2011). Difference between team and individual sports with respect to psychological skills, overall emotional intelligence and athletic success motivation in Shiraz city athletes. Journal of Physical Education & Sport, 11, 249–254.

    Google Scholar 

  • Karageorghis, C. I., & Priest, D. L. (2012a). Music in the exercise domain: A review and synthesis (Part I). International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5(1), 44–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2011.631026

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Karageorghis, C. I., & Priest, D. L. (2012b). Music in the exercise domain: A review and synthesis (Part II). International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5(1), 67–84. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2011.631027

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Laborde, S., Brüll, A., Weber, J., & Anders, L. S. (2011). Trait emotional intelligence in sports: A protective role against stress through heart rate variability? Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 23–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.03.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laborde, S., Dosseville, F., & Allen, M. S. (2016). Emotional intelligence in sport and exer- cise: A systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 26, 862–874. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12510

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laborde, S., Dosseville, F., Guillén, F., & Chávez, E. (2014). Validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire in sports and its links with performance satisfaction. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15, 481–490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.05.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laborde, S., Dosseville, F., & Scelles, N. (2010). Trait emotional intelligence and preference for intuition and deliberation: Respective influence on academic performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 784–788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.06.031

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laborde, S., Guillen, F., Dosseville, F., & Allen, M. S. (2015). Chronotype, sport participation, and positive personality-trait-like individual differences. Chronobiology International, 32, 942–951. https://doi.org/10.3109/07420528.2015.1055755

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Laborde, S., Guillén, F., & Watson, M. (2017). Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire full-form and short-form versions: Links with sport participation frequency and duration and type of sport practiced. Personality and Individual Differences, 108, 5–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laborde, S., Lautenbach, F., & Allen, M. S. (2015). The contribution of coping-related variables and heart rate variability to visual search performance under pressure. Physiology & Behavior, 139, 532–540. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.12.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laborde, S., Lautenbach, F., Allen, M. S., Herbert, C., & Achtzehn, S. (2014). The role of trait emotional intelligence in emotion regulation and performance under pressure. Personality and Individual Differences, 57, 43–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.Paid.2013.09.013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laborde, S., Raab, M., & Dosseville, F. (2013). Emotions and performance: Valuable insights from the sports domain. In C. Mohiyeddini, M. Eysenck, & S. Bauer (Eds.), Handbook of psychology of emotions: Recent theoretical perspectives and novel empirical findings (Vol. 1, pp. 325–358). New York, NY: Nova.

    Google Scholar 

  • Laborde, S., You, M., Dosseville, F., & Salinas, A. (2012). Culture, individual differences, and situation: Influence on coping in French and Chinese table tennis players. European Journal of Sport Science, 12, 255–261. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2011.566367

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lane, A. M., Thelwell, R. C., Lowther, J., & Devonport, T. J. (2009). Emotional intelligence and psychological skills use among athletes. Social Behavior and Personality, 37, 195–202. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2009.37.2.195

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lane, A. M., & Wilson, M. R. (2011). Emotions and trait emotional intelligence among ultra-endurance runners. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14, 358–362. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.Jsams.2011.03.001

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lazarus, R. S. (2000). How emotions influence performance in competitive sports. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 229–252.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York, NY: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lu, F. J., Li, G. S., Hsu, E. Y., & Williams, L. (2010). Relationship between athletes’ emotional intelligence and precompetitive anxiety. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 110, 323–338. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.110.1.323-338

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Magyar, T. M., Guivernau, M. R., Gano-Overway, L. A., Newton, M., Mi-Sook, K., Watson, D. L., & Fry, M. D. (2007). The influence of leader efficacy and emotional intelligence on personal caring in physical activity. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 26, 310–319. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=25732280&lang=fr&site=ehost-live

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mavroveli, S., Petrides, K. V., Shove, C., & Whitehead, A. (2008). Validation of the construct of trait emotional intelligence in children. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 17, 516–526.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mayer, J. D., Roberts, R. D., & Barsade, S. G. (2008). Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507–536.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 3–31). New York, NY: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2002). Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT): User’s manual. Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems Inc..

    Google Scholar 

  • Mesibov, G. B. (1984). Social skills training with verbal autistic adolescents and adults: A program model. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14(4), 395–404. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02409830

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Meyer, B. B., & Zizzi, S. J. (2007). Emotional intelligence in sport: Conceptual, methodological, and applied issues. In A. M. Lane (Ed.), Mood and human performance: Conceptual, measurement, and applied issues (pp. 131–152). London, UK: Nova Science.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mikolajczak, M. (2009). Moving beyond the ability-trait debate: A three level model of emotional intelligence. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 5, 25–31.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mikolajczak, M., Brasseur, S., & Fantini-Hauwel, C. (2014). Measuring intrapersonal and interpersonal EQ: The Short Profile of Emotional Competence (S-PEC). Personality and Individual Differences, 65, 42–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.01.023

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morris, B. J., & Zentall, S. R. (2014). High fives motivate: The effects of gestural and ambiguous verbal praise on motivation. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 928. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00928

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Nelis, D., Kotsou, I., Quoidbach, J., Hansenne, M., Weytens, F., Dupuis, P., & Mikolajczak, M. (2011). Increasing emotional competence improves psychological and physical well-being, social relationships, and employability. Emotion, 11, 354–366. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021554

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nicholls, A. R., & Polman, R. C. (2007). Coping in sport: A systematic review. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25, 11–31. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410600630654

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • O’Neil, D. A. (2011). The value of emotional intelligence for high performance coaching: A commentary. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 6, 329–332. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=65975482&lang=fr&site=ehost-live

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Palmer, B. R., Stough, C., Harmer, R., & Gignac, G. (2009). The Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory: A measure designed specifically for workplace applications. In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 103–118). New York, NY: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Perlini, A. H., & Halverson, T. R. (2006). Emotional intelligence in the National Hockey League. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 38, 109–119. https://doi.org/10.1037/cjbs2006001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Petrides, K. V. (2009a). Psychometric properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 85–101). New York, NY: Springer Science.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Petrides, K. V. (2009b). Technical manual for the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). London, UK: London Psychometric Laboratory.

    Google Scholar 

  • Petrides, K. V. (2010). Trait emotional intelligence theory. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3, 136–139.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2003). Trait emotional intelligence: Behavioural validation in two studies of emotion recognition and reactivity to mood induction. European Journal of Personality, 17, 39–57. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.466

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salovey, P., Mayer, J. D., Goldman, S. L., Turvey, C., & Palfai, T. P. (1995). Emotional attention, clarity, and repair: Exploring emotional intelligence using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale. In J. W. Pennebaker (Ed.), Emotion, disclosure, and health (pp. 125–154). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., et al. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167–177.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Siegling, A. B., Vesely, A. K., Petrides, K. V., & Saklofske, D. H. (2015). Incremental validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF). Journal of Personality Assessment, 97(5), 525–535. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2015.1013219

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Solanki, D., & Lane, A. M. (2010). Relationships between exercise as a mood regulation strategy and trait emotional intelligence. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 1, 195–200. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=59155410&lang=fr&site=ehost-live; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289183/pdf/ASJSM-1-195.pdf

  • Thayer, J. F., Hansen, A. L., Saus-Rose, E., & Johnsen, B. H. (2009). Heart rate variability, prefrontal neural function, and cognitive performance: The neurovisceral integration perspective on self-regulation, adaptation, and health. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37, 141–153. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-009-9101-z

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Thelwell, R. C., Lane, A. M., Weston, N. J. V., & Greenlees, L. A. (2008). Examining relationships between emotional intelligence and coaching efficacy. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 6, 224–235.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tok, S., Binboğa, E., Guven, S., Çatıkkas, F., & Dane, S. (2013). Trait emotional intelligence, the Big Five personality traits and isometric maximal voluntary contraction level under stress in athletes. Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research, 19, 133–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.npbr.2013.04.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Williams, B. T., Gray, K. M., & Tonge, B. J. (2012). Teaching emotion recognition skills to young children with autism: A randomised controlled trial of an emotion training programme. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(12), 1268–1276. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02593.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zizzi, S. J., Deaner, H. R., & Hirschhorn, D. K. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and performance among college basketball players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 15, 262–269. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200305390

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Patricia Grove and Julian Leibmann for their help in drawing the sketches for the emotional facial expressions, the emotional body language expressions, and the power poses.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sylvain Laborde .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2018 Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Laborde, S., Mosley, E., Ackermann, S., Mrsic, A., Dosseville, F. (2018). Emotional Intelligence in Sports and Physical Activity: An Intervention Focus. In: Keefer, K., Parker, J., Saklofske, D. (eds) Emotional Intelligence in Education. The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90633-1_11

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics