Advertisement

Morphological Aspects of the Bakreshwar River Corridor in Western Fringe of Lower Ganga Basin

  • Debika Banerji
  • Priyank Pravin PatelEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Geography of the Physical Environment book series (GEOPHY)

Abstract

The Bakreshwar River flows across south-central Birbhum District in West Bengal from west to east. Along its course, it traverses through varying lithological and physiographic units that influence and alter the morphological character of the river channel‚ its floodplain aspects as well as the human occupancy and use of adjacent riparian tracts. This study uses computed hydraulic parameters of the river along with planform channel images and land use maps to demarcate the river corridor. Within this demarcated river corridor, several terrain and channel attributes are investigated and their interlinkages are highlighted. Stream reach classification after the Rosgen method is done to demarcate morphologically distinct channel stretches and identify those of a similar character.

Keywords

Bakreshwar Channel morphology River corridor Rosgen 

References

  1. Alexander C (2005) Riparian buffers and corridors. Technical papers. Vermont Agency of Natural Resource, WaterburyGoogle Scholar
  2. Allan JD (2004) Landscapes and riverscapes: the influence of land use on stream ecosystems. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 35:257–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashmore PE (1991) How do gravel-bed rivers braid? Can J Earth Sci 28(3):326–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bagnold RA (1966) An approach to the sediment transport problem from general physics. USDI Geological Survey, Professional Paper 4221Google Scholar
  5. Begin ZB (1975) Structural and lithological constraints on stream profiles in the Dead Sea Region, Israel. J Geol 83(1):97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bisson PA, Buffington JM, Montgomery DR (2006) Valley segments, stream reaches and channel units. In: Hauer FR, Lamberti GA (eds) Methods in stream ecology. Academic Press, Elsevier, San Deigo, pp 23–49Google Scholar
  7. Bizzi S, Lerner DN (2015) The use of stream power as an indicator of channel sensitivity to erosion and deposition processes. River Res Appl 31:16–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bridge JS (1993) The interaction between channel geometry, water flow, sediment transport and deposition in braided rivers. Geol Soc, Lond, Spec Publ: Lyell Collect 75:13–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brierley GJ, Fryirs KA (2005) Geomorphology and river management: applications of the river styles framework. Blackwell Publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  10. Brierley GJ, Fryirs KA, Cullum C, Tadaki M, Huang HQ, Blue B (2013) Reading the landscape: integrating the theory and practice of geomorphology to develop place-based understandings of river systems. Prog Phys Geogr 37(5):601–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buffington JM, Montgomery DR (2013) Geomorphic classification of rivers. Treatise Geomorphol 9:730–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cailleux A (1952) Morphoskopischeanalyse der geschiebe und sandkorner und ihrebedeutung fur die palaoklimatologie. GeologischeRundschau 40(1):11–19Google Scholar
  13. Carlson EA (2009) Fluvial riparian classification for national forests in the western United States. Thesis, University of Colorado, Fort CollinsGoogle Scholar
  14. Carlston CW (1969) Downstream variations in the hydraulic geometry of streams: special emphasis on mean velocity. Am J Sci 267(4):499–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Charlton R (2008) Fundamentals of fluvial geomorphology. Routledge, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Church M, Rice SP (2009) Form and growth of bars in a wandering gravel-bed river. Earth Surf Proc Land 34(10):1422–1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clarke SJ, Bruce-Burgess L, Wharton G (2003) Linking form and function: towards and eco-hydromorphic approach to sustainable river restoration. Aquat Conserv: Mar Freshw Ecosyst 13(5):439–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cullum C, Rogers KH, Brierley G, Witkowski ETF (2016) Ecological classification and mapping for landscape management and science: foundations for the descriptions of patterns and processes. Prog Phys Geogr 40(1):38–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cupp CE (1989) Stream corridor classification for forested lands of Washington. Washington Forest Protection Association, Olympia, Washington, USAGoogle Scholar
  20. De Rose R, Stewardson MJ, Harman C (2008) Downstream hydraulic geometry of rivers in Victoria, Australia. J Hydrol 99(1–4):302–316Google Scholar
  21. Dingman SL (2007) Analytical derivation of at-a-station hydraulic geometry relations. J Hydrol 334(1&2):17–27Google Scholar
  22. Doppelt R, Scurlock M, Frissell C, Kar JR (1993) Entering the watershed: a new approach to save America’s River Watersheds. Electron Green J 1(4):462Google Scholar
  23. Downs PW, Kondolf GM (2002) Post-project appraisal in adaptive management of river channel restoration. Environ Manage 29(4):477–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. FISRWG (2001) Stream corridor restoration: principles, processes, and practices. The Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working group (FISRWG) (15 Federal agencies of the US Govt.). GPO Item 0120-A. SubDocs A 57.6/2: EN3/PT.653Google Scholar
  25. Friedman JM, Osterkamp WR, Scott ML, Auble GT (1998) Downstream effects of dams on channel geometry and bottomland vegetation: regional patterns in the great plains. Wetlands 18(4):619–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Froude W (1868) Law of comparison. Principles of Naval Architecture, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Gagoi C, Goswami DC (2014) A study on channel migration of the Subansiri river in Assam using remote sensing and GIS technology. Curr Sci 106(8):1113–1120Google Scholar
  28. Galay VJ, Kellerhals R, Bray DI (1973) Diversity of river types in Canada. In: Fluvial processes and sedimentation—proceedings of hydrology symposium No. 9. National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, pp 217–250Google Scholar
  29. Garcia M, Parker G (1991) Entrainment of bed sediment into suspension. J Hydraulic Eng 117(4):414–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ghosh S, Guchhait S (2015) Characterization and evolution of primary and secondary laterites in northwestern Bengal Basin, West Bengal, India. J Palaeogeogr 4(2):203–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gilvear D, Winterbottom S, Sichingabula H (2000) Character of channel planform change and meander development: Luangwa River, Zambia. Earth Surf Process Land 25(4):421–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gleason CJ (2015) Hydraulic geometry of natural rivers: a review and future directions. Prog Phys Geogr 39(3):337–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gordon ND, McMahon TA, Finlayson BL, Gippel CJ, Nathan RJ (2004) Stream hydrology: an introduction for ecologists. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  34. Graf WH (1971) Hydraulics of sediment transport. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. GSI (2001) District resource map—Birbhum. Geological Survey of India, KolkataGoogle Scholar
  36. Gurnell AM, Downward SR, Jones R (1994) Channel planform change on the River Dee meanders. Regulated Rivers: Res Manage 9(4):187–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Harrelson CC, Rawlins CL, Potyondy JP (1994) Stream channel reference sites: an illustrated guide to field technique. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-245. Fort Collins, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  38. Hawes E, Smith M (2005) Riparian buffer zones: functions and recommended widths. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies for the Eight Mile River, Wild and Scenic Study Committee, ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  39. Hey RD (1976) Geometry of river meanders. Nature 262:482–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hey RD, Heritage GL, Patteson M (1994) Impact of flood alleviation schemes on macrophytes. Regulated Rivers: River Res Appl 9(2):103–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hickin EJ (1974) The development of meanders in natural channels. Am J Sci 247:414–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Holbrook J, Scott RW, Oboh-Ikuenobe FE (2006) Base-level buffers and buttresses: a model for upstream versus downstream control on fluvial geometry and architecture within sequences. J Sediment Res 76(1):162–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Howard A (1996) Modelling channel evolution and floodplain morphology. In: Anderson MG, Walling DE, Bates PD (eds) Floodplain processes. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  44. Hudson PF, Kesel RH (2000) Channel migration and meander-bend curvature in the lower Mississippi River prior to major human modification. Geology 28(6):531–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jackson RG II (1975) Hierarchical attributes and a unifying model of bed forms composed of cohesionless material and produced by shearing flow. Geol Soc Am Bull 86:1523–1533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jowett IG (1998) Hydraulic geometry of New Zealand rivers and its use as a preliminary method of habitat assessment. Regulated Rivers: Res Manage 14:451–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Julien PY (1985) Planform geometry of meandering alluvial channels. Report CER84-85PYJ5, Civil Engineering Department, Engineering Research Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  48. Kleinhans MG (2010) Sorting out river channel patterns. Prog Phys Geogr 34(3):287–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Knighton AD (1998) Fluvial forms and processes: a new perspective. Edward Arnold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. Langbein WB, Leopold, LB (1966) River meanders—theory of minimum variance. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 422-H, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  51. Lee J, Julien P (2006) Downstream hydraulic geometry of alluvial channels. J Hydraulic Eng 132(12):1347–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Leopold LB, Langbein WB (1966) River meanders. Sci Am 214(6):60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Leopold LB, Maddock T (1953) The hydraulic geometry of stream channels and some physiographic implications. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 252, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  54. Leopold LB, Wolman MG, Miller JP (1964) Fluvial processes in geomorphology. Freeman and Co., San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  55. Manning R (1890) On the flow of water in open channels and pipes. Trans Inst Civil Eng Ireland 20:161–207Google Scholar
  56. Morisawa M (1968) Streams—their dynamics and morphology. McGraw-Hill Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Mondal S, Patel PP (2018) Examining the utility of river restoration approaches for flood mitigation and channel stability enhancement: a recent review. Environ Earth Sci 77(5):195Google Scholar
  58. Naiman RJ, Decamps H, Pollock M (1993) The role of riparian corridors in maintaining regional biodiversity. Ecol Appl 3(2):209–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. NATMO (2000) District planning map series—Birbhum. National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation, KolkataGoogle Scholar
  60. Nelson JM, Bennett JP, Wiele SM (2003) Flow and sediment-transport modeling. In: Kondolf GM, Piegay H (eds) Tools in fluvial geomorphology. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  61. O’Malley LSS (1910) Bengal district gazetteers—Birbhum: geography, travels and description. The Bengal Secretariat Book Depot, KolkataGoogle Scholar
  62. Ouimet WB, Whipple KX, Granger DE (2009) Beyond threshold hillslopes: channel adjustment to base level fall in tectonically active mountain ranges. Geology 37(7):579–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Park CC (1977) World-wide variations in hydraulic geometry exponents of stream channels: an analysis and some observations. J Hydrol 33(1&2):133–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Parker G (1976) On the cause and characteristic scales of meandering and braiding in rivers. J Fluid Mech 76:457–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pati JK, Lal J, Prakash K, Bhusan R (2008) Spatio-temporal shift of the western bank of the Ganga River, Allahabad city and its implications. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 36:289–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pfankuch DJ (1975) Stream reach inventory and channel stability evaluation. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service No. R1-75-002, GPO No. 696-260/200. Washington D.CGoogle Scholar
  67. Piegay H, Darby SE, Mosselman E, Surian N (2005) A review of techniques for delimiting the erodible river corridor: a sustainable approach to managing bank erosion. River Res Appl 21:773–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reid HE, Gregory CE, Brierley GJ (2008) Measures of physical heterogeneity in appraisal of geomorphic river condition for urban streams: Twin Streams Catchment, Auckland, New Zealand. Phys Geogr 29(3):247–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Richards K (1982) Rivers: forms and processes in alluvial channels. Methuen, London and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  70. Rosgen DL (1994) A classification of natural rivers. CATENA 22:169–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rosgen DL (1998) Stream classification field guide. Wildland Hydrology, Pagosa Springs, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  72. Rosgen DL (2001a) A hierarchical river stability/watershed-based sediment assessment methodology. In: Proceedings of the seventh federal interagency sedimentation conference, vol 1. Subcommittee on Sedimentation, Reno, pp II-97–II-106Google Scholar
  73. Rosgen DL (2001b) A practical method of computing streambank erosion rate. In: Proceedings of the seventh federal interagency sedimentation conference, vol 1. Subcommittee on Sedimentation, Reno, pp II-9–II-15Google Scholar
  74. Rosgen DL (2001c) A stream channel stability assessment methodology. In: Proceedings of the seventh federal interagency sedimentation conference, vol 1. Subcommittee on Sedimentation, Reno, pp II-18–II-26Google Scholar
  75. Rosgen DL (2006) Watershed assessment of river stability and sediment supply (WARSSS). Wildland Hydrology Books, Fort CollinsGoogle Scholar
  76. Rosgen DL (2007) Rosgen geomorphic channel design. In: Bernard J, Fripp JF, Robinson KR (eds) Part 654 stream restoration design national engineering handbook (201-VI-NEH). United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  77. Rosgen DL (2011) Natural channel design: fundamental concepts, assumptions and methods. In: Simon A, Bennett SJ, Castro JM (eds) Stream restoration in dynamic fluvial systems: scientific approaches, analyses and tools. Geophysical monograph series, vol 194. American Geophysical Union, Washington D.C., pp 69–93Google Scholar
  78. Schumm SA (1960) The shape of alluvial channels in relation to sediment type. U S Geol Sur Prof Pap B 352:17–30Google Scholar
  79. Seeber L, Gornitz V (1983) River profiles along the Himalayan arc as indicators of active tectonics. Tectonophysics 92:335–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sayre WW, Kennedy JF (eds) (1973) Degradation and aggradation of the Missouri river. In: Proceedings of a workshop held in Omaha, Nebraska for Iowa Conservation Commission. IIHR Report No. 215, Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research, University of Iowa, IowaGoogle Scholar
  81. Stanford JA, Ward JV (1993) An ecosystem perspective of alluvial rivers: connectivity and hyporheic corridor. J North Am Benthol Soc 12(1):48–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Stewardson M (2005) Downstream geometry of stream reaches. J Hydrol 306(1–4):97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Thomas A, Sharma PK (1998) The shift of Ravi River and the geomorphological features along its course in Amritsar and Gurdaspur districts of Punjab. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 26(12):57–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tockner K, Ward JV, Arscott DB, Edwards PJ, Kollmann J, Gurnell AM, Petts GE, Maiolini B (2003) The Tagliamento River: a model ecosystem of European importance. Aquat Sci 65(3):239–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Toms River Corridor Task Force (2004) A regional natural resources protection plan for the toms river corridor. Jackson and Manchester Townships, Ocean County, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  86. US EPA (1992) Streamwalk manual. Water Division Region 10, United States Environment Protection Agency, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  87. van den Berg JH (1995) Prediction of alluvial channel pattern of perennial rivers. Geomorphology 12:259–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Vermont Agency of Natural Resource (2005) Riparian buffers and corridors. Technical papers. Waterbury, VermontGoogle Scholar
  89. Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation (2013) River, river corridor, floodplain management programs. Biennial Report to the General Assembly Pursuant to Act 110, VermontGoogle Scholar
  90. Verry ES, Hornbeck JW, Dolloff CA (eds) (2000) Riparian management in forests to the continental Eastern United States. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  91. Wohl E (2004) Limits of downstream hydraulic geometry. Geology 32(10):897–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wenger S (1999) A review of the scientific literature on riparian buffer width, extent and vegetation. Office of Public Service and Outreach, Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GeorgiaGoogle Scholar
  93. Wegner S, Fowler L (2000) Protecting stream and river corridors: creating effective local riparian buffer ordinances. Public Policy Research Series, Carl Vinson Institute of Government, University of Georgia, GeorgiaGoogle Scholar
  94. Williams GP (1986) River meanders and channel size. J Hydrol 88:147–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Winterbottom SJ (2000) Medium and short-term channel planform changes on Rivers Tay and Tummel, Scotland. Geomorphology 34:195–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yang CT (1972) Unit stream power and sediment transport. ASCE J Hydraulics Div 98:1805–1826Google Scholar
  97. Yang CT, Stall JB (1974) Unit stream power for sediment transport in natural rivers. University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Water Resources Center Report UILU-WRC-74-0088 (Research Report 88), UrbanaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyVisva-Bharati UniversitySantiniketanIndia
  2. 2.Department of GeographyPresidency UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations