Organic Carbon and Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Soils of the Mediterranean Basin

Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 28)

Abstract

Soil organic carbon (SOC), the major component of soil organic matter (SOM), is extremely important in all soil processes. Organic material in the soil is essentially derived from plant and animal residues, synthesized by microbes and decomposed under the influence of temperature, moisture and soil conditions. The problem of soil organic carbon depletion is of particular concern in the Mediterranean basin, with mild or moderately cold humid winters and warm dry summers, since high temperatures and reduced soil moisture conditions accelerate decomposition processes. This depletion is often in combination with non-conservative agronomic practices such as deep tillage and the low inputs of organic matter to soils, as well as other soil degradation processes, e.g. soil erosion by water. Typically, soils developed in the Mediterranean basin exhibit a high spatial variability of soil properties, are prone to drought, have low water holding capacity, and are shallow particularly on slopes or stony on the soil surface. They are also relatively fragile, and vulnerable to different human activities arising from changes in land cover and land use such as deforestation, urban development and deep soil tillage, and as a result of unsustainable agricultural and forestry practices. In this situation many ecosystem services (ES) are severely threatened. Here we describe the main ecosystems services including provisional, regulating, aesthetic and supporting services, with a focus on the provision of services from soil carbon and crop sustainable management in the Mediterranean basin, including the threats derived from soil erosion and floods. We highlight the specific measures for a sustainable cropland management that can decrease soil organic carbon (SOC) losses, increase the external organic matter (OM) input, and how to efficiently combine both. We reviewed different measures adopting external organic input addition to soil, conservation agriculture by no-tillage, residues retention, cover crops, organic farming compared to conventional agriculture and sustainable crop management by irrigation. In arable cropping systems, we reported an increase in C sequestration rate ranging from 1.3 to 5.3 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 with the addition of organic external inputs, and equal to 0.27 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 with the adoption of cover crops. No tillage and reduced tillage can increase C sequestration rate by 0.44 and 0.32 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 respectively. The adoption of combined management practices, where organic matter inputs and conservation tillage practices are simultaneously applied, increase C sequestration rate by 1.11 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Organic farming management increase C sequestration rate by 0.97 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 as average, ranging from 0.62 to 1.32 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 with compost application and manure combined with cover crops respectively. Organic farming is also effective in increasing soil organic carbon stocks by about 70% compared with conventional management, and depending on soil type in permanent crops such as olive groves. Regulated deficit irrigation in summer crops is able to decrease CO2 emissions by about 10%, and consequently soil organic carbon losses without any negative effect on crop yields such as tomato. Soil erosion by water in permanent crops can be decreased by more than 70% with the use of cover crops, and by more than 40% with the adoption of temporary ditches on sloping soils in arable crops.

Keywords

Soil organic carbon Ecosystem services Agricultural soils Soil erosion Crop management Mediterranean basin 

List of Abbreviations

Carbon dioxide

(CO2)

Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio

(C/N)

Combined Management Practices

(CMPs)

Conservation Agriculture

(CA)

Conventional Tillage

(CT)

Cover Crop

(CC)

Crop Residues

(CR)

European Union

(EU)

Methane

(CH4)

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

(MEA)

Nitrous oxide

(N2O)

No Tillage

(NT)

Other Nitrogen Oxide Compounds

(NOx)

Recommended Management Practices

(RMPs)

Reduced Tillage

(RT)

Soil Inorganic Carbon

(SIC)

Soil Inorganic Matter

(SOM)

Soil Organic Carbon

(SOC)

United Nations Environment Programme

(UNEP)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to gather GIS data

(UAV-GIS)

References

  1. Acquadro A, Portis E, Scaglione D, Mauro RP, Campion B, Falavigna A, Zaccardelli R, Ronga D, Mauromicale G, Lanteri S (2013) CYNERGIA project: exploitability of Cynara cardunculus L. as energy crop. Acta Hort 983:109–150.  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2013.983.13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilera E, Lassaletta L, Gattinger A, Gimeno BS (2013) Managing soil carbon for climate change mitigation and adaptation in Mediterranean cropping systems: a meta-analysis. Agric Ecosyst Environ 168:25–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.02.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguilera E, Guzmán G, Alonso A (2015) Greenhouse gas emissions from conventional and organic cropping systems in Spain. I. Herbaceous crops. Agron Sustainable Dev 35(2):713–724.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-014-0267-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakker MM, Govers G, Jones RA, Rounsevell MDA (2007) The effect of soil erosion on Europe’s crop yields. Ecosystems 10:1209–1219.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-007-9090-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balota EL, Machineski O, Honda C, Yada IFU, Barbosa GMC, Nakatani AS, Coyne MS (2014) Response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in different soil tillage systems to long-term swine slurry application. Land Degrad Dev 27:1141–1150.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barbera V, Poma I, Gristina L, Novara A, Egli M (2012) Long-term cropping systems and tillage management effects on soil organic carbon stock and steady state level of C sequestration rates in a semiarid environment. Land Degrad Dev 23:82–91.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baveye PC, Baveye J, Gowdy J (2016) Soil “ecosystem” services and natural capital: critical appraisal of research on uncertain ground. Front Environ Sci 4:41.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bazzoffi P (2015) Measurement of rill erosion through a new UAV-GIS methodology. Ital J Agron 10 (Suppl.1).  https://doi.org/10.4081/ija.2015.10.s1.708
  9. Bazzoffi P, Francaviglia R, Neri U, Napoli R, Marchetti A, Falcucci M, Pennelli B, Simonetti G, Barchetti A, Migliore M, Fedrizzi M, Guerrieri M, Pagano M, Puri D, Sperandio G, Ventrella D (2015) Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 1.1a (temporary ditches) and 1.2 g (permanent grass cover of set-aside) in reducing soil erosion and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers. Ital J Agron 10 (s1).  https://doi.org/10.4081/ija.2015.10.s1.710
  10. Beer J, Blodau C (2007) Transport and thermodynamics constrain belowground carbon turnover in a northern peatland. Geochim Cosmochim Ac 71:2989–3002.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2007.03.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ben-Hammouda M, M’Hedhb, K, Abidi L, Rajeh A, Chourabi H, El-Faleh J, Dichiara C (2006) Conservation agriculture based on direct sowing. In: The future of drylands. International scientific conference on desertification and drylands research tunis, Tunisia, pp 647–657Google Scholar
  12. Bennett LT, Mele PM, Annett S, Kasel S (2010) Examining links between soil management, soil health, and public benefits in agricultural landscapes: an Australian perspective. Agric Ecosyst Environ 139(1):1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2010.06.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bernal B, McKinley DC, Hungate BA, White PM, Mozdzer TJ, Megonigal JP (2016) Limits to soil carbon stability; deep, ancient soil carbon decomposition stimulated by new labile organic inputs. Soil Biol Biochem 98:85–94.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2016.04.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bernoux M, Branca G, Carro A, Lipper L, Smith G, Bockel L (2010) Ex-ante greenhouse gas balance of agriculture and forestry development programs. Sci Agric 67(1):31–40.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162010000100005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bevivino A, Paganin P, Bacci G, Florio A, Pellicer MS, Papaleo MC, Mengoni A, Ledda L, Fani R, Benedetti A, Dalmastri C (2014) Soil bacterial community response to differences in agricultural management along with seasonal changes in a Mediterranean region. PLoS ONE 9(8):e105515.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105515CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Blanco-Moure N, Gracia R, Bielsa AC, Lopez MV (2013) Long-term no-tillage effects on particulate and mineral-associated soil organic matter under rainfed Mediterranean conditions. Soil Use Manage 29:250–259.  https://doi.org/10.1111/sum.12039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boulal H, Gómez-Macpherson H, Gómez JA (2008) Water infiltration and soil losses in a permanent bed irrigated system in Southern Spain. Ital J Agron 3:45–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boulal H, Gómez-Macpherson H (2010) Dynamics of soil organic carbon in an innovative irrigated permanent bed system on sloping land in Southern Spain. Agric Ecosyst Environ 139:284–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2010.08.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boulal H, Gómez-Macpherson H, Gómez JA, Mateos L (2011) Effect of soil management and traffic on soil erosion in irrigated annual crops. Soil Till Res 115–116:62–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2011.07.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bruggeman A, Masri Z, Turkelboom F, Zöbisch M, El-Naheb H (2005) Strategies to sustain productivity of olive groves on steep slopes in the northwest of the Syrian Arab Republic. In: Benites J, Pisante M, Stagnari F (eds) Integrated soil and water management for orchard development. Role and importance. FAO Land and Water Bulletin, vol 10. FAO, Rome, Italy, pp. 75–87Google Scholar
  21. Brunori E, Farina R, Biasi R (2016) Sustainable viticulture: the carbon-sink function of the vineyard agro-ecosystem. Agr Ecosyst Environ 223:10–21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.02.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burke IC, Yonker CM, Parton WJ, Cole CV, Flach K, Schimel DS (1989) Texture, climate, and cultivation effects on soil organic matter content in US grassland soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 53:800–805.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1989.03615995005300030029xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Calatrava-Leyva J, Franco-Martínez JA, González-Roa MC (2007) Analysis of the adoption of soil conservation practices in olive groves: the case of mountainous areas in Southern Spain. Span J Agr Res 5:249–258.  https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2007053-246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Canali S, Di Bartolomeo E, Tittarelli F, Montemurro F, Verrastro V, Ferri D (2011) Comparison of different laboratory incubation procedures to evaluate nitrogen mineralization in soil amended with aerobic and anaerobic stabilized organic materials. J Food Agric Environ 9:540–546Google Scholar
  25. Canali S, Campanelli G, Ciaccia C, Leteo F, Testani E, Montemurro F (2013) Conservation tillage strategy based on the roller crimper technology for weed control in Mediterranean vegetable organic cropping systems. Eur J Agron 50:11–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2013.05.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cantero-Martínez C, Angás P, Lampurlanés J (2007) Long-term yield and water use efficiency under various tillage systems in Mediterranean rainfed conditions. Ann Appl Biol 150:293–305.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2007.00142.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Caravaca F, Masciandaro G, Ceccanti B (2002) Land use in relation to soil chemical and biochemical properties in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Soil Tillage Res 68:23–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-1987(02)00080-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Casa R, Lo Cascio B (2008) Soil conservation tillage effects on yield and water use efficiency on irrigated crops in Central Italy. J Agron Crop Sci 194(4):310–319.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2008.00316.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Castro J, Fernández-Ondoño E, Rodríguez C, Lallena AM, Sierra M, Aguila J (2008) Effects of different olive-grove management systems on the organic carbon and nitrogen content of the soil in Jaén (Spain). Soil Till Res 98:56–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2007.10.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cayuela ML, Aguilera E, Sanz-Cobena A, Adams DC, Abalos D, Barton L, Ryals R, Silver WL, Alfaro MA, Pappa VA, Smith P, Garnier J, Billen G, Bouwman L, Bondeau A, Lassaletta L (2017) Direct nitrous oxide emissions in Mediterranean climate cropping systems: emission factors based on a meta-analysis of available measurement data. Agric Ecosyst Environ 238:25–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.10.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cerdá A, Giménez Morera A, García Orenes F, Morugán A, González Pelayo O, Pereira P, Novara A, Brevik EC (2014) The impact of abandonment of traditional flood irrigated citrus orchards on soil infiltration and organic matter. In: Arnáez J, González-Sampériz P, Lasanta T, Valero-Garcés BL (eds) Geoecología, Cambio Ambiental Y Paisaje: Homenaje Al Profesor José María García Ruiz. Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, Zaragoza, pp 267–276Google Scholar
  32. Colombo S, Hanley N, Calatrava J (2005) Designing policy for reducing the off farm effects of soil erosion using choice experiments. J Agr Econ 56:81–95.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-9552.2005.tb00123.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Conant RT, Ryan MG, Ågren GI, Birge HE, Davidson EA, Eliasson PE, Evans SE, Frey SD, Giardina CP, Hopkins FM, Hyvönen R, Kirschbaum MUF, Lavallee JM, Leifeld J, Parton WJ, Megan Steinweg J, Wallenstein MD, Wetterstedt JÅM, Bradford MA (2011) Temperature and soil organic matter decomposition rates synthesis of current knowledge and a way forward. Glob Change Biol 17:3392–3404.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02496.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Costantini EAC, Lorenzetti R (2013) Soil degradation processes in the Italian agricultural and forest ecosystems. Ital J Agron 8:233–243.  https://doi.org/10.4081/ija.2013.e28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cowling RM, Ojeda F, Lamont B, Rundel PW, Lechmere-Oertel R (2005) Rainfall reliability, a neglected factor in explaining convergence and divergence of plant traits in fire-prone Mediterranean-climate ecosystems. Global Ecol Biogeogr 14:509–519.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-822X.2005.00166.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dabney SM, Delgado JA, Reeves DW (2001) Using winter cover crops to improve soil and water quality. Commun Soil Sci Plant 32(7–8):1221–1250.  https://doi.org/10.1081/CSS-100104110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. De Vita P, Di Paolo E, Fecondo G, Di Fonzo N, Pisante M (2007) No-tillage and conventional tillage effects on durum wheat yield, grain quality and soil moisture content in Southern Italy. Soil Till Res 92:69–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2006.01.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Di Bene C, Marchetti A, Francaviglia R, Farina R (2016) Soil organic carbon dynamics in typical durum wheat-based crop rotations of Southern Italy. Ital J Agron 11(4):209–216.  https://doi.org/10.4081/ija.2016.763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dominati E, Patterson M, Mackay A (2010) A framework for classifying and quantifying the natural capital and ecosystem services of soils. Ecol Econ 69(9):1858–1868.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.05.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Falloon P, Jones CD, Ades M, Paul K (2011) Direct soil moisture controls of future global soil carbon changes: an important source of uncertainty. Global Biogeochem Cy 25:GB3010.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010gb003938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Farina R, Seddaiu G, Orsini R, Steglich E, Roggero PP, Francaviglia R (2011) Soil carbon dynamics and crop productivity as influenced by climate change in a rainfed cereal system under contrasting tillage using EPIC. Soil Till Res 112:36–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2010.11.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Farina R, Marchetti A, Francaviglia R, Napoli R, Di Bene C (2017) Modeling regional soil C stocks and CO2 emissions under Mediterranean cropping systems and soil types. Agric Ecosyst Environ 238:128–141.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.08.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fernández-Romero ML, Lozano-García B, Parras-Alcántara L (2014) Topography and land use change effects on the soil organic carbon stock of forest soils in Mediterranean natural areas. Agric Ecosyst Environ 195:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2014.05.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fisher B, Turner K, Zylstra M, Brouwer R, de Groot R, Farber S, Ferraro P, Green R, Hadley D, Harlow J, Jefferiss P, Kirkby C, Morling P, Mowatt S, Naidoo R, Paavola J, Strassburg B, Yu D, Balmford A (2008) Ecosystem services and economic theory: integration for policy-relevant research. Ecol Appl 18:2050–2067.  https://doi.org/10.1890/07-1537.1CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fissore C, Dalzell BJ, Berhe AA, Voegtle M, Evans M, Wu A (2017) Influence of topography on soil organic carbon dynamics in a Southern California grassland. Catena 149 (Part 1), pp 140–149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2016.09.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Francaviglia R, Benedetti A, Doro L, Madrau S, Ledda L (2014) Influence of land use on soil quality and stratification ratios under agro-silvo-pastoral Mediterranean management systems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 183:86–92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.10.026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Francaviglia R, Bruno A, Falcucci M, Farina R, Renzi G, Russo DE, Sepe L, Neri U (2016) Yields and quality of Cynara cardunculus L. wild and cultivated cardoon genotypes. A case study from a marginal land in Central Italy. Eur J Agron 72:10–19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2015.09.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Francaviglia R, Renzi G, Doro L, Parras-Alcántara L, Lozano-García B, Ledda L (2017) Soil sampling approaches in Mediterranean agro-ecosystems. Influence on soil organic carbon stocks. CATENA 158:113–120.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2017.06.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Franzluebbers AJ, Hons FM, Zuberer DA (1998) In situ and potential CO2 evolution from a Fluventic Ustochrept in south-central Texas as affected by tillage and cropping intensity. Soil Till Res 47:303–308.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-1987(98)00118-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. García-Orenes F, Guerrero C, Roldán A, Mataix-Solera J, Cerdà A, Campoy M, Zornoza R, Bárcenas G, Caravaca F (2010) Soil microbial biomass and activity under different agricultural management systems in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem. Soil Tillage Res 109:110–115.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2010.05.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. García-Ruiz JM, Nadal-Romero E, Lana-Renault N, Beguería S (2013) Erosion in Mediterranean landscapes: changes and future challenges. Geomorphology 198:20–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.05.023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gómez JA, Giráldez JV (2007) Soil and water conservation. A European approach through ProTerra projects. In: Proceedings of the European congress on agriculture and the environment, seville, 26–28th, 2007Google Scholar
  53. Gómez JA, Sobrinho TA, Giráldez JV, Fereres E (2009) Soil management effects on runoff, erosion and soil properties in an olive grove of Southern Spain. Soil Till Res 102:5–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2008.05.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. González-Sánchez EJ, Ordóñez-Fernández R, Carbonell-Bojollo R, Veroz-González O, Gil-Ribes JA (2012) Meta-analysis on atmospheric carbon capture in Spain through the use of conservation agriculture. Soil Till Res 122:52–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2012.03.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Grammelis P, Malliopoulou A, Basinas P, Danalatos NG (2008) Cultivation and characterization of Cynara cardunculus for solid biofuels production in the Mediterranean region. Int J Mol Sci 9:1241–1258.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms9071241CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Hernanz JL, Sánchez-Girón V, Navarrete L (2009) Soil carbon sequestration and stratification in a cereal/leguminous crop rotation with three tillage systems in semiarid conditions. Agr Ecosyst Environ 133:114–122.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2009.05.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hillier J, Walter C, Malin D, Garcia-Suarez T, Mila-i-Canals L, Smith P (2011) A farm-focused calculator for emissions from crop and livestock production. Environ Modell Softw 26:1070–1078.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.03.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Infante-Amate J, González de Molina M (2013) The socio-ecological transition on a crop scale: the case of olive orchards in Southern Spain (1750–2000). Hum Ecol 41:961–969.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-013-9618-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jenny H (1980) The Soil Resource: Origin and Behavior. Ecological Studies, Vol 37, Springer, New York, 377 ppGoogle Scholar
  60. Kay BD, VandenBygaart AJ (2002) Conservation tillage and depth stratification of porosity and soil organic matter. Soil Till Res 66(2):107–118.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-1987(02)00019-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kroodsma DA, Field CB (2006) Carbon sequestration in California agriculture, 1980–2000. Ecol Appl 16:1975–1985.  https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2006)016[1975:CSICA]2.0.CO;2CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lag-Brotons A, Gómez I, Navarro-Pedreño J, Bartual-Martos J (2014) Effects of sewage sludge compost on Cynara cardunculus L. cultivation in a Mediterranean soil. Compost Sci Util 22:33–39.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2013.870945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lagomarsino A, Benedetti A, Marinari S, Pompili L, Moscatelli MC, Roggero PP, Lai R, Ledda L, Grego S (2011) Soil organic C variability and microbial functions in a Mediterranean agro-forest ecosystem. Biol Fertil Soils 47:283–291.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-010-0530-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lal R (2005) Forest soils and carbon sequestration. For Ecol Manage 220:242–258.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.08.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lal R, Delgado JA, Groffman PM, Millar N, Dell C, Rotz A (2011) Management to mitigate and adapt to climate change. J Soil Water Conserv 66:276–285.  https://doi.org/10.2489/jswc.66.4.276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lampurlanés J, Cantero-Martínez C (2005) Hydraulic conductivity, residue cover and soil surface roughness under different tillage systems in semiarid conditions. Soil Till Res 85:13–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2004.11.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Laudicina VA, Badalucco L, Palazzolo E (2011) Effects of compost input and tillage intensity on soil microbial biomass and activity under Mediterranean conditions. Biol Fertil Soils 47:63–70.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-010-0502-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Laudicina VA, Novara A, Barbera V, Egli M, Badalucco L (2015) Long-term tillage and cropping system effects on chemical and biochemical characteristics of soil organic matter in a Mediterranean semiarid environment. Land Degrad Dev 26:45–53.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ledda L, Deligios PA, Farci R, Sulas L (2013) Biomass supply for energetic purposes from some Cardueae species grown in Mediterranean farming systems. Ind Crop Prod 47:218–226.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.03.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Leogrande R, Lopedota O, Montemurro F, Vitti C, Ventrella D (2012) Effects of irrigation regime and salinity on soil characteristics and yield of tomato. Ital J Agron 7:50–57.  https://doi.org/10.4081/ija.2012.e8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lieskovský J, Kenderessy P (2014) Modelling the effect of vegetation cover and different tillage practices on soil erosion in vineyards: a case study in Vráble (Slovakia) using WATEM/SEDEM. Land Degrad Dev 25:288–296.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lithourgidis AS, Tsatsarelis CA, Dhima KV (2005) Tillage effects on corn emergence, silage yield, and labor and fuel inputs in double cropping with wheat. Crop Sci 45:2523–2528.  https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2005.0141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Llasat MC, Llasat-Botija M, Prat MA, Porcú F, Price C, Mugnai A, Lagouvardos K, Kotroni V, Katsanos D, Michaelides S, Yair Y, Savvidou K, Nicolaides K (2010) High-impact floods and flash floods in Mediterranean countries: the FLASH preliminary database. Adv Geosci 23:47–55.  https://doi.org/10.5194/adgeo-23-47-2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. López MV, Sabre M, Gracia R, Arrúe JL, Gomes L (1998) Tillage effects on soil surface conditions and dust emission by wind erosion in semiarid Aragón (NE Spain). Soil Till Res 45:91–105.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-1987(97)00066-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. López-Bermúdez F (2008) Desertificación: Preguntas y respuestas a un desafío económico, social y ambiental. Fundación Biodiversidad, Madrid, p 129Google Scholar
  76. López-Bellido RJ, Fontán JM, López-Bellido FJ, López-Bellido LL (2010) Carbon sequestration by tillage, rotation, and nitrogen fertilization in a Mediterranean vertisol. Agron J 102:310–318.  https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2009.0165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. López-Fando C, Pardo MT (2011) Soil carbon storage and stratification under different tillage systems in a semi-arid region. Soil Till Res 111(2):224–230.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2010.10.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lorenz K, Lal R (2016) Environmental impact of organic agriculture. Adv Agron 139:99–152.  https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.agron.2016.05.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lozano-García B, Parras-Alcántara L (2014) Variation in soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks along a toposequence in a traditional Mediterranean olive grove. Land Degrad Dev 25:297–304.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lugato E, Bampa F, Panagos P, Montanarella L, Jones A (2014) Potential carbon sequestration of European arable soils estimated by modelling a comprehensive set of management practices. Glob Chang Biol 20:3557–3567.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12551CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Marques MJ, Bienes R, Cuadrado J, Ruiz-Colmenero M, Barbero-Sierra C, Velasco A (2015) Analysing perceptions attitudes and responses of winegrowers about sustainable land management in Central Spain. Land Degrad Dev 26:458–467.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Marzaioli R, D’Ascoli R, De Pascale RA, Rutigliano FA (2010) Soil quality in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy as related to different land use types. Appl Soil Ecol 44(3):205–212.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2009.12.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mazzoncini M, Antichi D, Di Bene C, Risaliti R, Petri M, Bonari E (2016) Soil carbon and nitrogen changes after 28 years of no-tillage management under Mediterranean conditions. Eur J Agron 77:156–165.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2016.02.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. MEA (2005) Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington DC, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, p 137Google Scholar
  85. Meersmans J, Martin MP, Lacarce E, De Baets S, Jolivet C, Boulonne L, Lehmann S, Saby NPA, Bispo A, Arrouays D (2012) A high resolution map of French soil organic carbon. Agron Sustainable Dev 32:841–851.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-012-0086-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Meijide A, Gruening C, Goded I, Seufert G, Cescatti A (2017) Water management reduces greenhouse gas emissions in a Mediterranean rice paddy field. Agric Ecosyst Environ 238:168–178.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.08.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mørch HFC (1999) Mediterranean Agriculture—An Agro-Ecological Strategy. Geogr Tidsskr-Den Special Issue 1:143–156Google Scholar
  88. Mukherjee A, Lal R, Zimmerman AR (2014) Effects of biochar and other amendments on the physical properties and greenhouse gas emissions of an artificially degraded soil. Sci Total Environ 487:26–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.141CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Muñoz-Rojas M, Doro L, Ledda L, Francaviglia R (2015) Application of CarboSOIL model to predict the effects of climate change on soil organic carbon stocks in agro-silvo-pastoral Mediterranean management systems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 202:8–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2014.12.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Nichols JD (1984) Relation of organic carbon to soil properties and climate in the Southern Great Plains. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48:1382–1384.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1984.03615995004800060037xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nkoa R (2014) Agricultural benefits and environmental risks of soil fertilization with anaerobic digestates: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 34:473–492.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-013-0196-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Novara A, Gristina L, Saladino SS, Santoro A, Cerdà A (2011) Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil Tillage Res 117:140–147.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2011.09.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Novara A, La Mantia T, Barbera V, Gristina L (2012) Paired-site approach for studying soil organic carbon dynamics in a Mediterranean semiarid environment. CATENA 89(1):1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2011.09.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pardo G, del Prado A, Martínez-Mena M, Bustamante MA, Rodríguez Martín JA, Álvaro-Fuentes J, Moral R (2017) Orchard and horticulture systems in Spanish Mediterranean coastal areas: is there a real possibility to contribute to C sequestration? Agric Ecosyst Environ 238:153–167.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.09.034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Parra-López C, Groot JCJ, Carmona-Torres C, Rossing WAH (2009) An integrated approach for ex-ante evaluation of public policies for sustainable agriculture at landscape level. Land Use Policy 26:1020–1030.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2008.12.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Parras-Alcántara L, Lozano-García B (2014) Conventional tillage versus organic farming in relation to soil organic carbon stock in olive groves in Mediterranean rangelands (Southern Spain). Solid Earth 5(1):299–311.  https://doi.org/10.5194/se-5-299-2014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Parras-Alcántara L, Lozano-García B, Galán-Espejo A (2015a) Soil organic carbon along an altitudinal gradient in the Despeñaperros Natural Park, Southern Spain. Solid Earth 6:125–134.  https://doi.org/10.5194/se-6-125-2015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Parras-Alcántara L, Lozano-García B, Brevik EC, Cerdá A (2015b) Soil organic carbon stocks assessment in Mediterranean natural areas: a comparison of entire soil profiles and soil control sections. J Environ Manage 155:219–228.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.03.039CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Parton WJ, Schimel DS, Cole CV, Ojima DS (1987) Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plains grasslands. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51:1173–1179.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1987.03615995005100050015xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Patanè C, Cosentino SL (2010) Effects of soil water deficit on yield and quality of processing tomato under a Mediterranean climate. Agric Water Manag 97:131–138.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2009.08.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Plieninger T, Bieling C, Fagerholm N, Byg A, Hartel T, Hurley P, López-Santiago CA, Nagabhatla N, Oteros-Rozas E, Raymond CM, van der Horst D, Huntsinger L (2015) The role of cultural ecosystem services in landscape management and planning. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 14:28–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2015.02.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Porter J, Costanza R, Sandhu HS, Sigsgaard L, Wratten SD (2009) The value of producing food, energy and ES within an agro-ecosystem. Ambio 38:186–193.  https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447-38.4.186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Powlson DS, Whitmore AP, Goulding KWT (2011) Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change: a critical re-examination to identify the true and the false. Eur J Soil Sci 62–1:42–55.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2010.01342.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ramos ME, Altieri MA, Garcia PA, Robles AB (2011) Oat and oat-vetch as rainfed fodder-cover crops in semiarid environments: effects of fertilization and harvest time on forage yield and quality. J Sustain Agric 35:726–744.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10440046.2011.606490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rasmussen PE, Collins HP (1991) Long-term impacts of tillage, fertilizer, and crop residue on soil organic matter in temperate semiarid regions. Adv Agron 45:93–134.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60039-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Reynaldo V, Banwart S, Black H, Ingram J, Joosten H, Milne E, Noellemeyer E (2012) The benefits of soil carbon. UNEP Yearbook 2012:19–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Riffaldi R, Saviozzi A, Levi-Minzi R, Cardelli R (2002) Biochemical properties of a Mediterranean soil as affected by long-term crop management systems. Soil Tillage Res 67:109–114.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-1987(02)00044-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rodeghiero M, Rubio A, Díaz-Pinés E, Romanyà J, Marañón-Jiménez S, Levy GJ, Fernandez-Getino AP, Sebastià MT, Karyotis T, Chiti T, Sirca C, Martins A, Manuel Madeira M, Zhiyanski M, Gristina L, La Mantia T (2011) Soil carbon in Mediterranean ecosystems and related management problems. In: Jandl R, Rodeghiero M, Olsson M (eds), Soil carbon in sensitive european ecosystems: from science to land management. Wiley, pp. 175–218.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119970255.ch8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rodríguez-Entrena M, Barreiro-Hurlé J, Gómez-Limón JA, Espinosa-Goded M, Castro-Rodríguez J (2012) Evaluating the demand for carbon sequestration in olive grove soils as a strategy toward mitigating climate change. J Environ Manage 112:368–376.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.08.004CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Romanyà J, Rovira P (2011) An appraisal of soil organic C content in Mediterranean agricultural soils. Soil Use Manage 27:321–332.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-2743.2011.00346.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sandhu HS, Wratten SD, Cullen R, Case B (2008) The future of farming: the value of ecosystem services in conventional and organic arable land: an experimental approach. Ecol Econ 64:835–848.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.05.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Schnabel RR, Franzluebbers AJ, Stout WL, Sanderson MA, Stuedemann JA (2001) The effects of pasture management practices. In: Follett RF, Kimble JM, Lal R (eds) The Potential of US Grazing Lands to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, pp 291–322Google Scholar
  113. Sims REH, Hastings A, Schlamadinger B, Taylor G, Smith P (2006) Energy crops: current status and future prospects. Glob Change Biol 12:2054–2076.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01163.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Smith AN, Reberg-Horton SC, Place GT, Meijer AD, Arellano C, Mueller JP (2011) Rolled rye mulch for weed suppression in organic no-tillage soybeans. Weed Sci 59(2):224–231.  https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-D-10-00112.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Stagnari F, Galieni A, Speca S, Cafiero G, Pisante M (2014) Effects of straw mulch on growth and yield of durum wheat during transition to conservation agriculture in Mediterranean environment. Field Crops Res 167:51–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2014.07.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Swinton SM, Lupi F, Robertson GP, Hamilton SK (2007) Ecosystem services and agriculture: cultivating agricultural ecosystems for diverse benefits. Ecol Econ 64:245–252.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.09.020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Troccoli A, Maddaluno C, Mucci M, Russo M, Rinaldi M (2015) Is it appropriate to support the farmers for adopting conservation agriculture? Economic and environmental impact assessment. Ital J Agron 10:169–177.  https://doi.org/10.4081/ija.2015.661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tuomi M, Vanhalaa P, Karhu K, Fritze H, Liski J (2008) Heterotrophic soil respiration. Comparison of different models describing its temperature dependence. Ecol Model 21:182–190.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2007.09.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Vanmaercke M, Poesen J, Verstraeten G, De Vewnte J, Ocakoglu F (2011) Sediment yield in Europe: spatial patterns and scale dependency. Geomorphology 130:142–161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.03.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Vicente-Vicente J, García-Ruiz R, Francaviglia R, Aguilera E, Smith P (2016) Soil carbon sequestration rates under Mediterranean woody crops using recommended management practices: a meta-analysis. Agric Ecosyst Environ 235:204–214.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.10.024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Von Lützow M, Kögel-Knaber I, Ekschmitte K, Matzner E, Guggenberger G, Marschner B, Flessa H (2006) Stabilization of organic matter in temperate soils: mechanisms and their relevance under different soil conditions—a review. Eur J Soil Sci 57:426–445.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2006.00809.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Weber JL (2007) Accounting for soil in the SEEA. European Environment Agency, RomeGoogle Scholar
  123. Zdruli P, Jones RJA, Montanarella L (2004) Organic Matter in the Soils of Southern Europe. European Soil Bureau Technical Report, EUR 21083 EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 16 ppGoogle Scholar
  124. Zhang W, Ricketts TH, Kremen C, Carney K, Swinton SM (2007) Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecol Econ 64:253–260.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.02.024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zornoza R, Rosales RM, Acosta JA, de la Rosa JM, Arcenegui V, Faz Á, Pérez-Pastor A (2016) Efficient irrigation management can contribute to reduce soil CO2 emissions in agriculture. Geoderma 263:70–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.09.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosa Francaviglia
    • 1
  • Luigi Ledda
    • 2
  • Roberta Farina
    • 1
  1. 1.Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria, Centro di ricerca Agricoltura e AmbienteRomeItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Agraria, Sezione di Agronomia, Coltivazioni erbacee e GeneticaUniversità di SassariSassariItaly

Personalised recommendations