Treatment Technologies of Household Greywater

  • Efaq Ali Noman
  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
  • Siti Asmah Bakar
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
  • Balkis A. Talip
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 87)


The shortage of water resource in the developing countries induced the search for alternative sources. Greywater alongside storm and ablution water might represent the best source of water because these waters have less contaminant than sewage. However, the separation of this water from the source point is the first step in the proper management which facilitates the treatment process. The selection of treatment technologies for greywater depends on the economic status and standards limits required for disposal or reuse of greywater which differs from one country to the others. In many of the developing countries, the treatment of greywater aims at achieving the basic requirements which lie in the reduction of the main parameters of greywater. The utilisation of flocculation and coagulants process might be effective for this purpose. Many of the natural coagulants have been reported to reduce the main parameters of greywater. In the developed countries, advanced technologies are used for removing of xenobiotics organic compounds (XOCs) and to produce high quality of the treated greywater. This chapter focuses on the treatment technology used for the treatment of greywater and their efficiency in the reduction of XOCs.


Treatment technology XOCs Removal efficiency AOPs 



The authors wish to thank the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) for supporting this research under FRGS vot 1574 and also the Research Management Centre (RMC) UTHM for providing grant IGSP U682 for this research.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Efaq Ali Noman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
    • 3
  • Siti Asmah Bakar
    • 3
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
    • 3
  • Balkis A. Talip
    • 4
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology (FAST)Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)PagohMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty Applied SciencesTaiz UniversityTaizYemen
  3. 3.Micro-Pollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Parit Raja, Batu PahatMalaysia
  4. 4.Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology (FAST)Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Pagoh MuarMalaysia

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