Xenobiotic Organic Compounds in Greywater and Environmental Health Impacts

  • Efaq Ali Noman
  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-GheethiEmail author
  • Balkis A. TalipEmail author
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
  • H. Nagao
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 87)


One of the most common organic compounds which represents real challenges in the environmental pollution treatment is the xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs). They are complex organic compounds which have high persistence in the environment extend for several years due to their chemical structure. Meanwhile, its hazards risk lies in tier active poisons which directly affect aquatic life within a short exposure time. XOCs in the greywater are generated from utilisation of detergents and personal body care products and they have the potential to persist in nature for a long time and thus have long-term effects to the environment including toxicity and bioaccumulation in the organism’s cells. There are many literatures discussing about the types of XOCs of greywater. For instance, some types of XOCs in greywater are toxic for aquaculture. This chapter will discuss the occurrence of XOCs in the greywater, chemical structure and bioassay for the toxicity of these compounds.


XOCs Toxicity Health risk Regulations Greywater 



The authors wish to thank the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) for supporting this research under FRGS vot 1574 and also the Research Management Centre (RMC) UTHM for providing grant IGSP U682 for this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Efaq Ali Noman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
    • 3
    Email author
  • Balkis A. Talip
    • 4
    Email author
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
    • 3
  • H. Nagao
    • 5
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology (FAST)Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)PagohMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty Applied SciencesTaiz UniversityTaizYemen
  3. 3.Micro-Pollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Parit Raja, Batu PahatMalaysia
  4. 4.Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology (FAST)Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Pagoh MuarMalaysia
  5. 5.School of Biological SciencesUniversiti Sains Malaysia (USM)PenangMalaysia

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