Reuse of Greywater for Irrigation Purpose

  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
  • Efaq Ali Noman
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
  • Balkis A. Talip
  • Abd Halid Abdullah
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 87)


Reuse of greywater for the irrigation is an alternative water source in the new water management strategy of the countries that face a severe deficiency of water resources such as the Middle East Countries. Several studies have been evaluated the effects of greywater on the soil structure and plants. Greywater with a high level of nitrogen and phosphorus as well as macro-elements induce the plant’s growth. However, the reuse of these effluents at excessive rates might produce detrimental effects on soil and crops. Some of the heavy metals in the greywater are toxic to plants, while others have toxicity for human and animals. The main consideration in the reuse of greywater in the irrigation lies in the transfer of pathogenic microorganisms to humans directly or indirectly. In developed countries, the utilisation of greywater for the irrigation subject for strict regulation which lies in the method of irrigation as surface or subsurface. In contrast, the surface irrigation is the common practice in the developing countries. In this chapter, the benefits of the greywater for the soil and plants as well as the adverse effects are reviewed. Based on the literature review in this chapter, it can be concluded that the criteria required to reuse greywater in the irrigation include aesthetics, hygienic safety, environmental tolerance, and technical and economic feasibility.


Greywater Microbial risk Human health Reuse Irrigation 



The authors wish to thank the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) for supporting this research under FRGS vot 1574 and also the Research Management Centre (RMC) UTHM for providing grant IGSP U682 for this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
    • 1
  • Efaq Ali Noman
    • 3
    • 4
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
    • 1
  • Balkis A. Talip
    • 5
  • Abd Halid Abdullah
    • 2
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
    • 1
  1. 1.Micro-Pollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Batu PahatMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Architecture and Engineering Design, Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Batu PahatMalaysia
  3. 3.Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology (FAST)Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)PagohMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty Applied SciencesTaiz UniversityTaizYemen
  5. 5.Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology (FAST)Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Pagoh MuarMalaysia

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