Disinfection Technologies for Household Greywater

  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
  • Efaq Ali Noman
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
  • Balkis A. Talip
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
  • Norli Ismail
Chapter
Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 87)

Abstract

The treatment technologies for greywater are followed by the disinfection processes in order to achieve safe disposal into the environment. The disinfection technologies aim at reducing or minimising the concentrations of the pathogenic microorganism of greywater which have a high potential risk for humans and plants, and, thus, provide safe and aesthetically acceptable greywater that is appropriate for the purpose of irrigation. The disinfection processes include chemical (chlorination and ozonation), physical or mechanical (filtration process) and radiation disinfection (UV irradiation, solar disinfection (SODIS)). The degree of the disinfection process proposed must take into account the type of reuse and the risk of exposure to the population. In this chapter, the disinfection techniques of greywater are reviewed and discussed based on their efficiency to eliminate the pathogenic bacteria and other toxic by-products. The objective of this chapter was to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of disinfection processes. Among the several disinfectant technologies for greywater, SODIS appears to be the most potent technology which is widely applicable in most of the developing countries experiencing arid and semi-arid atmospheric conditions due to the high density of sunlight which is more effective for inactivating pathogenic microorganisms.

Keywords

SODIS AOPs Pathogenic bacteria PGP Non-culture methods 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) for supporting this research under FRGS vot 1574 and also the Research Management Centre (RMC) UTHM for providing grant IGSP U682 for this research.

References

  1. Al-Gheethi AA, Norli I, Lalung J, Azieda T, Kadir MOA (2013) Reduction of faecal indicators and elimination of pathogens from sewage treated effluents by heat treatment. Caspian J Appl Sci Res 2(2):29–45Google Scholar
  2. Al-Gheethi AA, Ismail N, Efaq AN, Bala JD, Al-Amery RM (2015) Solar disinfection and lime stabilization processes for reduction of pathogenic bacteria in sewage effluents and biosolids for agricultural purposes in Yemen. J Water Reuse Desalin 5(3):419–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Gheethi AA, Mohamed RM, Efaq AN, Amir HK (2016) Reduction of microbial risk associated with greywater utilized for irrigation. Water health J 14(3):379–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bae S, Wuertz S (2009) Discrimination of viable and dead fecal Bacteroidales bacteria by quantitative PCR with propidium monoazide. Appl Environ Microbiol 75(9):2940–2944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banana AAS (2013) Inactivation of pathogenic bacteria in human body fluids by steam autoclave, microwave and supercritical carbon dioxide. Ph.D. thesis, Environmental Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  6. Bani-Melhem K, Al-Qodah Z, Al-Shannag M, Qasaimeh A, Qtaishat MR, Alkasrawi M (2015) On the performance of real grey water treatment using a submerged membrane bioreactor system. J. Membrane Sci 476:40–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartelt-Hunt SL, Bartz JC, Saunders SE (2013) Prions in the environment. In: Prions and diseases. Springer, New York, pp 89–101Google Scholar
  8. Bedrina B, Macián S, Solís I, Fernández-Lafuente R, Baldrich E, Rodríguez G (2013) Fast immuno sensing technique to detect Legionella pneumophila in different natural and anthropogenic environments: comparative and collaborative trials. BMC Microbiol 13(1):88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benami M, Gillor O, Gross A (2015) The question of pathogen quantification in disinfected greywater. Sci Total Environ 506:496–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bosshard F, Berney M, Scheifele M, Weilenmann HU, Egli T (2009) Solar disinfection (SODIS) and subsequent dark storage of Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri monitored by flow cytometry. Microbiology 155(4):1310–1317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Camacho-Alanis F, Ros A (2015) Protein dielectrophoresis and the link to dielectric properties. Bioanalysis 7(3):353–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cantor KP, Hoover R, Hartge P, Mason TJ, Silverman DT, Altman R, Austin DF, Child MA, Key CR, Marrett LD (1987) Bladder cancer, drinking water source and tap water consumption: a case control study. J Nat Cancer Ins 79:1269–1279Google Scholar
  13. Center A, Warrenton V (2007) Report of the experts scientific workshop On critical research needs for the development of new or revised recreational water quality criteriaGoogle Scholar
  14. Chang JC, Ossoff SF, Lobe DC, Dorfman MH, Dumais CM, Qualls RG, Johnson JD (1985) UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms. Appl Environ Microbiol 49(6):1361–1365Google Scholar
  15. Choi JW, Sherr BF, Sherr EB (1999) Dead or alive? A large fraction of ETS-inactive marine bacterioplankton cells, as assessed by reduction of CTC, can become ETS-active with incubation and substrate addition. Aquat Microb Ecol 18(9):105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chun-ming GONG (2007) Microbial safety control of compost material with cow dung by heat treatment. J Environ Sci 19:1014–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ciavola M (2011) Water disinfection in developing countries: design of a new household solar disinfection (SODIS) system. University of Salerno (IT), Tattarillo Award 2011 Appropriate Technologies for sustainable development in any South of the WorldGoogle Scholar
  18. Davis R, Mauer LJ (2010) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy: a rapid tool for detection and analysis of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Curr Res Technol Educ Top Appl Microbiol Microb Biotechnol 2:1582–1594Google Scholar
  19. Eisenstark A (1971) Mutagenic and lethal effects of visible and near-ultraviolet light on bacterial cells. Adv Genet 1971(16):167–198Google Scholar
  20. Ericsson M, Hanstorp D, Hagberg P, Enger J, Nystrom T (2000) Sorting out bacterial viability with optical tweezers. J Bacteriol 182:5551–5555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Facile N, Barbeau B, Prevost M, Koudjonou B (2000) Evaluating bacterial aerobic spores as a surrogate for Giardia and Cryptosporidium inactivation by ozone. Water Res 34(12):3238–3246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fernandez-Lafuente R (2009) Stabilization of multimeric enzymes: strategies to prevent subunit dissociation. Enzyme Microb Technol 45:405–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gameson ALH, Gould JD (1985) Bacterial mortality, Part 2. In: Investigations of sewage discharges to some British coastal waters. WRcTechn. Rep. TR 222. WRc Environment, Medmenham, UKGoogle Scholar
  24. Gilboa Y, Friedler E (2008) UV disinfection of RBC-treated light greywater effluent: kinetics, survival and regrowth of selected microorganisms. Water Res 42(4):1043–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Haarhoff J, Cleasby LJ (1991) Biological and physical mechanisms in slow sand filtration. In: Logsdon (ed) Slow sand filtration. ASCE, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Harding AS, Schwab KJ (2012) Using limes and synthetic psoralens to enhance solar disinfection of water (SODIS): a laboratory evaluation with norovirus, Escherichia coli, and MS2. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86(4):566–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hossain S (2013) Supercritical carbon dioxide sterilization of clinical solid waste. Ph.D. thesis, Environmental Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, University Science Malaysia, Penang, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  28. Hou D, Maheshwari S, Chang HC (2007) Rapid bioparticle concentration and detection by combining a discharge driven vortex with surface enhanced Raman scattering. Biomicrofluidics 1(1):014106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Humphreys MJ, Allman R, Lloyd D (1994) Determination of the viability of Trichomonas vaginalis using flow cytometry. Cytometry 15:343–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Janex ML, Savoye P, Xu P, Rodriguez J, Lazarova V (2000) Ozone for urban wastewater disinfection: a new efficient alternative solution. In: Proceedings of the specialized conference on fundamental and engineering concepts for ozone reactor design, Toulouse, France. International Ozone Association, Stamford, Connecticut, pp 95–98Google Scholar
  31. Jernaes MW, Steen HB (1994) Staining of Escherichia coli for flow cytometry: influx and efflux of ethidium bromide. Cytometry 17:302–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jiang Q, Fu B, Chen Y, Wang Y, Liu H (2013) Quantification of viable but nonculturable bacterial pathogens in anaerobic digested sludge. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97(13):6043–6050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jong J, Lee J, Kim J, Hyun K, Hwang T, Park J, Choung Y (2010) The study of pathogenic microbial communities in greywater using membrane bioreactor. Desalination 250:568–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Joo JH, Wang SY, Chen JG, Jones AM, Fedoroff NV (2005) Different signaling and cell death roles of heterotrimeric G protein alpha and beta subunits in the Arabidopsis oxidative stress response to ozone. Plant Cell 17:957–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kamihira M, Taniguchi M, Kobayashi T (1987) Sterilization of microorganisms with supercritical and liquid carbon dioxide. Agricul Biol Chem 51:407–412Google Scholar
  36. Khalaphallah R, Maroga-Mboula V, Pelaez M, Hequet V, Dionysiou DD, Andres Y (2012) Inactivation of E. coli and P. aeruginosa in greywater by NF-TiO2 photocatalyst under visible light. In: Conference WWPR 2012, Water Reclamation & Reuse, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 28–30 MarchGoogle Scholar
  37. Krämer N, Löfström C, Vigre H, Hoorfar J, Bunge C, Malorny B (2011) A novel strategy to obtain quantitative data for modelling: combined enrichment and real-time PCR for enumeration of salmonellae from pig carcasses. Int J Food Microbiol 145:S86–S95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lindgren S, Grette S (1998) Vatten-och avloppssystem. EkoportenNorrköping [Water and sewerage system. Ekoporten in Norrköping]. SABO Utveckling. Trycksak 13303/1998-06.500Google Scholar
  39. Machulek Jr A, Moraes JEF, Okano LT, Silverio CA, Quina FH (2009) Photolysis of ferric ion in the presence of sulfate or chloride ions: implications for the photo-Fenton process. Photochem Photobiol Sci 8(2009):985–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mohamed H, Brown J, Njee RM, Clasen T, Malebo HM, Mbuligwe S (2015) Point-of-use chlorination of turbid water: results from a field study in Tanzania. J Water Health 13(2):544–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nissen MD, Sloots TP (2002) Rapid diagnosis in pediatric infectious diseases: the past, the present and the future. Pediatr Infect Dis J 21(6):605–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Noble RT, Weisberg SB (2005) A review of technologies for rapid detection of bacteria in recreational waters. J Water Health 3(4):381–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Noman EA, Rahman NN, Shahadat M, Nagao H, Al-Karkhi AF, Al-Gheethi A, Omar AK (2016) Supercritical fluid CO2 technique for destruction of pathogenic fungal spores in solid clinical wastes. Clean—Soil, Air, Water 44(12):1700–1708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Orlofsky E, Benami M, Gross A, Dutt M, Gillor O (2015) Rapid MPN-Qpcr screening for pathogens in air, soil, water, and agricultural produce. Water Air Soil Pollut 226(9):1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ottosson J (2003) Hygiene aspects of greywater and greywater reuse. Doctoral dissertation, Mark och vatten. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Department of Land and Water Resources. Engineering Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI), Department of Water and Environmental MicrobiologyGoogle Scholar
  46. Pathmanathan SG, Cardona-Castro N, Sanchez-Jimenez MM, Correa-Ochoa MM, Puthucheary SD, Thong KL (2003) Simple and rapid detection of Salmonella strains by direct PCR amplification of the hilA gene. J Med Microbiol 52(9):773–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pehlivanoglu-Mantas E, Elisabeth L, Hawley R, Deeb A, Sedlak DL (2006) Formation of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during chlorine disinfection of wastewater effluents prior to use in irrigation systems. Water Res 40(2):341–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Poltorak OM, Chukhrai ES, Kozlenkov AA, Chaplin MF, Trevan MD (1999) The putative common mechanism for inactivation of alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes. J Mol Cata B: Enzymatic 7:157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Robertson LJ, Smith HV, Ongerth JE (1994) Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis. Part III: development of water treatment technologies to remove and inactivate oocysts. Microbiol Eur(Jan/Feb)Google Scholar
  50. Rowe DR, Abdel-Magid IM (1995) Handbook of wastewater reclamation and reuse. CRC Press, CRC Lewis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  51. Russo P, Botticella G, Capozzi V, Massa S, Spano G, Beneduce L (2014) A fast, reliable, and sensitive method for detection and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157: H7 in ready-to-eat fresh-cut products by MPN-qPCR. BioMed Res IntGoogle Scholar
  52. Santasmasas C, Rovira M, Clarens F, Valderrama C (2013) Greywater reclamation by decentralized MBR prototype. Res Conser Rec 72:102–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sciacca F, Rengifo-Herrera J, Wethe J, Pulgarin C (2010) Dramatic enhancement of solar disinfection (SODIS) of wild Salmonella spp. in PET bottles by H2O2 addition on natural water in Burkina Faso containing dissolved iron. Chemosphere 78:1186–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Setlow RB (1968) The photochemistry, photobiology, and repair of polynucleotides. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol 8:257–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Shi P, Jia S, Zhang XX, Zhang T, Cheng S, Li A (2013) Metagenomic insights into chlorination effects on microbial antibiotic resistance in drinking water. Water Res 45(1):111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Silbert LE, Liu AJ, Nagel SR (2006) Structural signatures of the unjamming transition at zero temperature. Physical Rev E 73(4):041304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Smith WD, Hanawalt CP (1969) Repair of DNA in UV irradiated mycoplasma laidlawii B. J Mol Biol 46(1):57–77Google Scholar
  58. Stewart EJ (2012) Growing unculturable bacteria, mini review. J Bacteriol 194(16):4151–4160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Straškrabová V (1983) The effect of substrate shock on populations of starving aquatic bacteria. J Appl Bacteriol 54:217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sugumar G, Mariappan S (2003) Survival of Salmonella sp. in freshwater and seawater microcosms under starvation. Asian Fish Sci 16(3/4):247–256Google Scholar
  61. Tal T, Sathasivan A, Bal Krishna KB (2011) Effect of different disinfectants on grey water quality during storage. J Water Sustain 1:127–137Google Scholar
  62. Tanchou V (2014) Review of methods for the rapid identification of pathogens in water samples—ERNCIP Thematic Area Chemical & Biological Risks in the Water Sector Task 7. Publications Office of the European UnionGoogle Scholar
  63. Teodoro A, Boncz MÁ, Júnior AM, Paulo PL (2014) Disinfection of greywater pre-treated by constructed wetlands using photo-Fenton: influence of pH on the decay of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Environ ChemEng 2(2):958–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tripathi S, Pathak V, Tripathi DM, Tripathi BD (2011) Application of ozone based treatments of secondary effluents. J Biores Technol 102(3):2481–2486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. USEPA J (2003) Ultraviolet disinfection guidance manual, pp 1–556. EPA-815-D-03-007Google Scholar
  66. USEPA (2007) Pathogens, pathogen indicators and indicators of fecal contamination. Airlie Center, Warrenton, Virginiam U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Office of Research and Development. EPA 823-R-07-006Google Scholar
  67. Vital M, Stucki D, Egli T, Hammes F (2010) Evaluating the growth potential of pathogenic bacteria in water. Appl Environ Microbiol 67(19):6477–6484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Walker DC, Len SV, Sheehan B (2004) Development and evaluation of a reflective solar disinfection pouch for treatment of drinking water. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:545–2550Google Scholar
  69. Weaver L, Michels HT, Keevil CW (2010) Potential for preventing spread of fungi in air-conditioning systems constructed using copper instead of aluminium. Lett Appl Microbiol 50(1):18–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Winward GP, Stephenson ALM, Jefferson B (2008) Chlorine disinfection of grey water for reuse: effect of organics and particles. Water Res 42:483–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. World Health Organization (2006) Overview of greywater management health considerations. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Centre for Environmental Health Activities Amman, JordanGoogle Scholar
  72. Xu P, Savoye P, Cockx A, Lazarova V (2002) Wastewater disinfection by ozone: main parameters for process design. Water Res 36(4):1043–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Yu JC, Yu JG, Ho WK, Jiang ZT, Zhang LZ (2002) Effects of F-doping on the photocatalytic activity and microstructures of nanocrystalline TiO2 powders. Chem Mater 2002(14):3808–3816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zubair A, Yasir M, Khaliq A, Matsui K, Chung YR (2010) Mini Review: too much bacteria still unculturable. Crop Environ 1:59–60Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
    • 1
  • Efaq Ali Noman
    • 2
    • 3
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
    • 1
  • Balkis A. Talip
    • 4
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
    • 1
  • Norli Ismail
    • 5
  1. 1.Micro-Pollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Parit Raja, Batu PahatMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology (FAST)Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)PagohMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty Applied SciencesTaiz UniversityTaizYemen
  4. 4.Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology (FAST)Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Pagoh MuarMalaysia
  5. 5.Environmental Technology Division, School of Industrial TechnologyUniversiti Sains Malaysia (USM)George TownMalaysia

Personalised recommendations