Advertisement

Qualitative Characterization of Household Greywater in Developing Countries: A Comprehensive Review

  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
  • Efaq Ali Noman
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
  • J. D. Bala
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
Chapter
Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 87)

Abstract

Greywater is a type of wastewater generated from household activities which include bathing, laundry and kitchen activities. Greywater has a lower quality than potable water, but it is of higher quality than sewage. This article is a qualitative review presenting the quantities and qualitative characteristics of greywater in developed and developing countries. The chapter aims at highlighting the presence of nitrogen, phosphorus and pathogenic microorganisms. This paper provides a comprehensive review of greywater in order to understand the physiochemical and microbiological composition of greywater which represents the first step in choosing the most appropriate technology for the treatment process and to best evaluate the health risks associated with greywater discharge into the environment.

Keywords

Chemical Physical Microbiological composition Indicator bacteria 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) for supporting this research under FRGS vot 1574 and also the Research Management Centre (RMC) UTHM for providing grant IGSP U682 for this research.

References

  1. Abdel-Shafy HI, Al-Sulaiman AM, Mansour MS (2014) Greywater treatment via hybrid integrated systems for unrestricted reuse in Egypt. J Water Process Eng 1:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abedin SB, Rakib ZB (2013) Generation and quality analysis of greywater at Dhaka City. Environ Res Eng Manage 64(2):29–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adendorff J, Stimie C (2005) Food from used water-making the previously impossible happen. The Water Wheel. South African Water Research Commission (WRC), pp 26–29Google Scholar
  4. Albrechtsen HJ (2002) Microbiological investigations of rainwater and graywater collected for toilet flushing. Water Sci Technol 46(6–7):311–316Google Scholar
  5. Alderlieste MC, Langeveld JG (2005) Wastewater planning in; Djenné, Mali. A pilot project for the local infiltration of domestic wastewater. Water Sci Technol 51(2):57–64Google Scholar
  6. Al-Gheethi AA, Ismail N, Lalung J, Talib A, Kadir MOA (2013) Reduction of faecal indicators and elimination of pathogens from sewage treated effluents by heat treatment. Caspian J App Sci Res 2(2)Google Scholar
  7. Al-Gheethi AA, Mohamed RM, Efaq AN, Hashim MA (2016a) Reduction of microbial risk associated with greywater by disinfection processes for irrigation. J Water Health 14(3):379–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Al-Gheethi AA, Mohamed RMS, Efaq AN, Norli I, Hashim MA, Ab Kadir MO (2016b) Bioaugmentation process of sewage effluents for the reduction of pathogens, heavy metals and antibiotics. J Water Health 14(5):780–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Al-Hamaiedeh H, Bino M (2010) Effect of treated grey water reuse in irrigation on soil and plants. Desalination 256(1):115–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Al-Mughalles MH, Rahman RA, Suja FB, Mahmud M, Jalil NA (2012) Household greywater quantity and quality in Sana’a, Yemen. EJGE 17:1025–1034Google Scholar
  11. Al-Saud M (2010) Water sector of Saudi Arabia. The 2nd Japan-Arab Economic Forum, TunisiaGoogle Scholar
  12. Ammari TG, Al-Zubi Y, Al-Balawneh A, Tahhan R, Al-Dabbas M, Ta’any RA, Abu-Harb R (2014) An evaluation of the re-circulated vertical flow bioreactor to recycle rural greywater for irrigation under arid Mediterranean bioclimate. Ecol Eng 70:16–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Antonopoulou G, Kirkou A, Stasinakis AS (2013) Quantitative and qualitative greywater characterization in Greek households and investigation of their treatment using physicochemical methods. Sci Total Environ 454:426–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Atiku A, Mohamed RMSR, Al-Gheethi AA, Wurochekke AA, Kassim AH (2016) Harvesting microalgae biomass from the phycoremediation process of greywater. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(24):24624–24641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Banana AS, Radin Maya Saphira RM, Al-Gheethi AA (2016) Mercury pollution for marine environment at Farwa Island, Libya. J Environ Health Sci Eng 14:5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bani-Melhem K, Al-Qodah Z, Al-Shannag M, Qasaimeh A, Qtaishat M, Alkasrawi M (2015) On the performance of real grey water treatment using a submerged membrane bioreactor system. J Membrane Sci 476:40–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Benami M, Busgang A, Gillor O, Gross A (2016) Quantification and risks associated with bacterial aerosols near domestic greywater-treatment systems. Sci The Total Environ 562:344–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Birks R, Hills S (2007) Characterization of indicator organisms and pathogens in domestic greywater for recycling. Environ Monit Assess 129(1–3):61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Birks R, Colbourne J, Hills S, Hobson R (2004) Microbiological water quality in a large in-building, water recycling facility. Water Sci Technol 50(2):165–172Google Scholar
  20. Bodnar I, Szabolcsik A, Baranyai E, Uveges A, Boros N (2014) Qualitative characterization of household greywater in the northern great plain region of Hungary. Environ Eng Manage J 13(11):2717–2724Google Scholar
  21. Boyjoo Y, Pareek VK, Ang M (2013) A review of greywater characteristics and treatment processes. Water Sci Technol 67(7):1403–1424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Busser S, Nga PT, Morel A, Anh NV (2006) Characteristic and quantities of domestic wastewater in urban and peri-urban households in Hanoi. In: Proceedings of the environmental science and technology for sustainability of Asia, The 6th general seminar of the core university program, KumamotoGoogle Scholar
  23. Byappanahalli MN, Fujioka RS (1998) Evidence that tropical soil environment can support the growth of Escherichia coli. Water Sci Technol 38(12):171–174Google Scholar
  24. Carden K, Armitage N, Sichone O, Winter K (2007) The use and disposal of greywater in the non-sewered areas of South Africa. WRC Report No. 1524/1/07, Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  25. Casanova LM, Gerba CP, Karpiscak M (2001) Chemical and microbial characterization of household graywater. J Environ Sci Health, Part A 36(4):395–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Celico F, Varcamonti M, Guida M, Naclerio G (2004) Influence of precipitation and soil on transport of fecal enterococci in fractured limestone aquifers. Appl Environ Microbiol 70(5):2843–2847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chaillou K, Gérente C, Andrès Y, Wolbert D (2011) Bathroom greywater characterization and potential treatments for reuse. Water Air Soil Pollut 215(1–4):31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chin WH, Roddick FA, Harris JL (2009) Greywater treatment by UVC/H2O2. Water Res 43(16):3940–3947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Christova-Boal D, Eden RE, McFarlane S (1996) An investigation into greywater reuse for urban residential properties. Desalination 106(1):391–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Coronel-Olivares C, Reyes-Gómez LM, Hernández-Muñoz A, Martínez-Falcón AP, Vázquez-Rodríguez G, Iturbe U (2011) Chlorine disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis: revisiting reclaimed water regulations. Water Sci Technol 64(11):2151–2157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dancer SJ (2004) How do we assess hospital cleaning? A proposal for microbiological standards for surface hygiene in hospitals. J Hosp Infect 56(1):10–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. do Couto EDA, Calijuri ML, Assemany PP, da Fonseca Santiago A, de Castro Carvalho I (2013) Greywater production in airports: qualitative and quantitative assessment. Res Conserv Recycl 77:44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dubey A, Goyal D, Mishra A (2013) Zeolites in wastewater treatment. Green Mater Sustain Water Rem Treat 23:82Google Scholar
  34. Efaq AN, Saeed AA, Mohamed RMSR (2016) Current status of greywater in Middle East countries, a glance at the world. Waste Manage 49:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Epstein E (2002) Land application of sewage sludge and biosolids. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  36. Eriksson E, Donner E (2009) Metals in greywater: sources, presence and removal efficiencies. Des 248(1):271–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Eriksson E, Auffarth K, Henze M, Ledin A (2002) Characteristics of grey wastewater. Urban Water 4:85–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Faruqui N, Al-Jayyousi O (2002) Greywater reuse in urban agriculture for poverty alleviation: a case study in Jordan. Water Int 27(3):387–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Finley S, Barrington S, Lyew D (2009) Reuse of domestic greywater for the irrigation of food crops. Water Air Soil Pollut 199(1–4):235–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fountoulakis MS, Markakis N, Petousi I, Manios T (2016) Single house on-site grey water treatment using a submerged membrane bioreactor for toilet flushing. Sci Total Environ 551:706–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Friedler E (2004) Quality of individual domestic greywater streams and its implication for on-site treatment and reuse possibilities. Environ Technol 25(9):997–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Garland JL, Levine LH, Yorio NC, Adams JL, Cook KL (2000) Greywater processing in recirculating hydroponic systems: phytotoxicity, surfactant degradation, and bacterial dynamics. Water Res 34(12):3075–3086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Geldreich EE (1978) Bacterial populations and indicator concepts in feces, sewage, stormwater and solid wastes. Galveston Bay Bibliography, GBIC Materials Available at Jack K. Williams LibraryGoogle Scholar
  44. Ghaitidak DM, Yadav KD (2013) Characteristics and treatment of greywater—a review. Environ Sci Poll Res 20(5):2795–2809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ghunmi LA, Zeeman G, Fayyad M, van Lier JB (2010) Grey water treatment in a series anaerobic–aerobic system for irrigation. Bioresour Technol 101(1):41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gilboa Y, Friedler E (2008) UV disinfection of RBC-treated light greywater effluent: kinetics, survival and regrowth of selected microorganisms. Water Res 42(4):1043–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gokulan R, Sathish N, Kumar RP (2013) Treatment of grey water using hydrocarbon producing Botryococcusbraunii. Int J Chem Tech Res 5(3):1390–1392Google Scholar
  48. Grčić I, Vrsaljko D, Katančić Z, Papić S (2015) Purification of household greywater loaded with hair colorants by solar photocatalysis using TiO2-coated textile fibers coupled flocculation with chitosan. J Water Process Eng 5:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gregory AW, Hansen BE (1996) Practitioners corner: tests for cointegration in models with regime and trend shifts. Oxford Bull Econ Stat 58(3):555–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gross A, Kaplan D, Baker K (2007a) Removal of chemical and microbiological contaminants from domestic greywater using a recycled vertical flow bioreactor (RVFB). Ecol Eng 31(2):107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gross A, Shmueli O, Ronen Z, Raveh E (2007b) Recycled vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW)—a novel method of recycling greywater for irrigation in small communities and households. Chemosphere 66(5):916–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Günther F (2000) Wastewater treatment by greywater separation: outline for a biologically based greywater purification plant in Sweden. Ecol Eng 15(1):139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Halalsheh M, Dalahmeh S, Sayed M, Suleiman W, Shareef M, Mansour M, Safi M (2008) Grey water characteristics and treatment options for rural areas in Jordan. Bioresour Technol 99(14):6635–6641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Harikumar PS, Mol B (2012) A synoptic study on the preparation of a liquid waste management plan for Kerala State, India. Environ Natural Res Res 2(2):74Google Scholar
  55. Helvetas (2005) Water consumption in Switzerland (in German: Wasserverbrauch in derSchweiz), Helvetas, Schweizer Gesellschaft für ZusammenarbeitGoogle Scholar
  56. Hörman A, Rimhanen-Finne R, Maunula L, von Bonsdorff CH, Torvela N, Heikinheimo A, Hänninen ML (2004) Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., noroviruses, and indicator organisms in surface water in southwestern Finland, 2000–2001. Appl Environ Microbiol 70(1):87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Howard G, Bartram J, Water S (2003) Domestic water quantity, service level and health. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  58. Jais NM, Mohamed RM, Al-Gheethi AA, Hashim MA (2016) The dual roles of phycoremediation of wet market wastewater for nutrients and heavy metals removal and microalgae biomass production. Clean Technol Environ Policy 1–16Google Scholar
  59. Jamrah A, Al-Omari A, Al-Qasem L, Ghani A (2006) Assessment of availability and characteristics of greywater in Amman. Water Int 31(2):210–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jamrah A, Al-Futaisi A, Prathapar S, Al Harrasi A (2008) Evaluating greywater reuse potential for sustainable water resources management in Oman. Environ Monit Assess 137, 315e327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jefferson B, Laine A, Parsons S, Stephenson T, Judd S (1999) Technologies for domestic wastewater recycling. Urban Water 1:285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jefferson B, Palmer A, Jeffrey P, Stuetz R, Judd S (2004) Grey water characterization and its impact on the selection and operation of technologies for urban reuse. Water Sci Technol 50(2):157–164Google Scholar
  63. Jeppesen B, Solley D (1994) Domestic greywater reuse: overseas practice and its applicability to Australia. Urban Water Research Association of AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  64. Jin Y, Chen T, Li H (2012) Hydrothermal treatment for inactivating some hygienic microbial indicators from food waste-amended animal feed. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 62(7):810–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jong J, Lee J, Kim J, Hyun K, Hwang T, Park J, Choung Y (2010) The study of pathogenic microbial communities in graywater using membrane bioreactor. Des 250(2):568–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Karabelnik K, Kõiv M, Kasak K, Jenssen PD, Mander Ü (2012) High-strength greywater treatment in compact hybrid filter systems with alternative substrates. Ecol Eng 49:84–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Katukiza AY, Ronteltap M, Niwagaba C, Kansiime F, Lens PN (2014) A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit for grey water treatment at household level in an urban slum. J Environ Manage 133:258–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Katukiza AY, Ronteltap M, Niwagaba CB, Kansiime F, Lens P (2015) Grey water characterisation and pollutant loads in an urban slum. Int J Environ Sci Technol 12(2):423–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kenner BA, Clark H (1974) Detection and enumeration of Salmonella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Water Poll Control Fed 2163–2171Google Scholar
  70. Klammer I (2013) Policy of onsite and small-scale wastewater treatment options in Finland. Environmental Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  71. Laghari A, Ali Z, Haq MU, Channa A, Tunio M (2015) An economically viable method by indigenous material for decontamination of greywater. Sindh Univ Rese J-SURJ (Sci Ser) 47(3)Google Scholar
  72. Leal LH, Zeeman G, Temmink H, Buisman C (2007) Characterization and biological treatment of greywater. Water Sci Technol 56(5):193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ledin A, Eriksson E, Henze M (2001) Aspects of groundwater recharge using grey wastewater. Chapter 18. In: Decentralized sanitation and reuse. IWA PublishingGoogle Scholar
  74. Lim S, Chu W, Phang S (2010) Use of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile wastewater. J Bioresour Technol 101:7314–7322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Maimon A, Friedler E, Gross A (2014) Parameters affecting greywater quality and its safety for reuse. Sci Total Environ 487:20–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mara DD, Cairncross S (1989) Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture and aquaculture: measures for public health protection. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  77. Marjoram C (2014) Graywater research findings at the residential level. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado State University Fort Collins, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  78. Matos C, Pereira S, Amorim EV, Bentes I, Briga-Sá A (2014) Wastewater and greywater reuse on irrigation in centralized and decentralized systems—an integrated approach on water quality, energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Sci Total Environ 493:463–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mohamed RM, Kassim AH, Anda M, Dallas SA (2013) Monitoring of environmental effects from household greywater reuse for garden irrigation. Environ Monit Assess 185(10):8473–8488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mohamed RM, Chan CM, Senin H, Kassim AH (2014) Feasibility of the direct filtration over peat filter media for bathroom greywater treatment. J Mater Environ Sci 5(6):2021–2029Google Scholar
  81. Mohamed, RMSR, Al-Gheethi AA, Kassim AHM (2016a) Reuse of ablution water to improve peat soil characteristics for ornamental landscape plants cultivation. In: 2nd international conference on Sustainable Environment and Water Research (ICSEWR 2016), 5–6 December 2016, Novotel Melaka, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  82. Mohamed RM, Al-Gheethi AA, Jackson AM, Amir HK (2016b) Multi natural filter for domestic greywater treatment in village houses. J Am Water Works Assoc (AWWA)Google Scholar
  83. Morel A, Diener S (2006) Greywater management in low and middle-income countries, review of different treatment systems for households or neighbourhoods. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), DubendorfGoogle Scholar
  84. Mourad KA, Berndtsson JC, Berndtsson R (2011) Potential fresh water saving using greywater in toilet flushing in Syria. J Environ Manage 92(10):2447–2453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nnaji CC, Mama CN, Ekwueme A, Utsev T (2013) Feasibility of a filtration-adsorption grey water treatment system for developing countries. Hydrol Curr ResGoogle Scholar
  86. Oh KS, Poh PE, Chong MN, Chan ES, Lau EV, Saint CP (2016) Bathroom greywater recycling using polyelectrolyte-complex bilayer membrane: advanced study of membrane structure and treatment efficiency. Carbohyd Polym 148:161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ottoson J, Stenström TA (2003) Faecal contamination of greywater and associated microbial risks. Water Res 37(3):645–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Palmquist H, Hanæus J (2005) Hazardous substances in separately collected grey-and blackwater from ordinary Swedish households. Sci Total Environ 348(1):151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Patil YM, Munavalli GR (2016) Performance evaluation of an integrated on-site greywater treatment system in a tropical region. Ecol Eng 95:492–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Polo F, Figueras MJ, Inza I, Sala J, Fleisher JM, Guarro J (1999) Prevalence of Salmonella serotypes in environmental waters and their relationships with indicator organisms. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 75(4):285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Prathapar SA, Jamrah A, Ahmed M, Al Adawi S, Al Sidairi S, Al Harassi A (2005) Overcoming constraints in treated greywater reuse in Oman. Desalination 186(1):177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rangel-Martínez C, Jiménez-González DE, Martínez-Ocaña J, Romero-Valdovinos M, Castillo-Rojas G, Espinosa-García AC, Maravilla P (2015) Identification of opportunistic parasites and helminth ova in concentrated water samples using a hollow-fibre ultrafiltration system. Urban Water J 12(5):440–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rodda N, Salukazana L, Jackson SA, Smith MT (2011) Use of domestic greywater for small-scale irrigation of food crops: effects on plants and soil. Phys Chem Earth Parts A/B/C 36(14):1051–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rose BE, Hill WE, Umholtz R, Ransom GM, James WO (2002) Testing for Salmonella in raw meat and poultry products collected at federally inspected establishments in the United States, 1998 through 2000. J Food Prot 65(6):937–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rouch DA, Mondal T, Pai S, Glauche F, Fleming VA, Thurbon N, Deighton M (2011) Microbial safety of air-dried and rewetted biosolids. J Water Health 9(2):403–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Santasmasas C, Rovira M, Clarens F, Valderrama C (2013) Grey water reclamation by decentralized MBR prototype. Res Conserv Recycl 72:102–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Saumya S, Akansha S, Rinaldo J, Yayasri MA, Suthindhiran K (2015) Construction and evaluation of prototype subsurface flow wetland planted with Heliconia angusta or the treatment of synthetic greywater. J Cleaner Prod 91:235–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schäfer AI, Nghiem LD, Oschmann N (2006) Bisphenol A retention in the direct ultrafiltration of greywater. J Membr Sci 283(1):233–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. STAATT (2005) Technical assistance manual: state regulatory oversight of medical waste treatment technology. Report of the state and territorial association on alternative treatment technologies (STAATT)Google Scholar
  100. Surendran S, Wheatley AD (1998) Grey-water reclamation for non-potable re-use. Water Environ J 12(6):406–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Teh XY, Poh PE, Gouwanda D, Chong MN (2015) Decentralized light greywater treatment using aerobic digestion and hydrogen peroxide disinfection for non-potable reuse. J Cleaner Prod 99:305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Turner RD, Warne MSJ, Dawes LA, Vardy S, Will GD (2016) Irrigated greywater in an urban sub-division as a potential source of metals to soil, groundwater and surface water. J Environ Manage 183:806–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ukwubile CA (2014) Microbial analysis of greywater from local bathrooms and its health implications in bali local government area Taraba state Nigeria. J Adv Biotechnol 2(1):48–57Google Scholar
  104. USEPA (2003) Ultraviolet disinfection guidance manual. Office of Water; 2003. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.CGoogle Scholar
  105. Vakil KA, Sharma MK, Bhatia A, Kazmi AA, Sarkar S (2014) Characterization of greywater in an Indian middle-class household and investigation of physicochemical treatment using electrocoagulation. Sep Purif Technol 130:160–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Vierheilig J, Frick C, Mayer RE, Kirschner AKT, Reischer GH, Derx J, Farnleitner AH (2013) Clostridium perfringens is not suitable for the indication of fecal pollution from ruminant wildlife but is associated with excreta from nonherbivorous animals and human sewage. Appl Environ Microbiol 79(16):5089–5092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Warrington PD (2001) Water quality criteria for microbiological indicators overview report. Resource Quality Section Water Management Branch, Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, U.KGoogle Scholar
  108. Wheater DWF, Mara DD, Jawad L, Oragui J (1980) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli in sewage and fresh water. Water Res 14(7):713–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wilderer PA (2004) Applying sustainable water management concepts in rural and urban areas: some thoughts about reasons, means and needs. Water Sci Technol 49(7):7–16Google Scholar
  110. Winward GP (2007) Disinfection of Greywater. Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Cranfield University Centre for Water Sciences, Department of Sustainable systems, School of Applied Sciences, p 189Google Scholar
  111. Winward GP, Avery L, Stephenson T, Jefferson B (2008a) Chlorine disinfection of grey water for reuse: effect of organics and particles. Water Res 42, 483e491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Winward GP, Avery LM, Frazer-Williams R, Pidoua M, Jeffrey P, Stephenson T, Jefferson B (2008b) A study of the microbial quality of grey water and an evaluation of treatment technologies for reuse. Ecol Eng 32:187–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Winward GP, Avery LM, Stephenson T, Jefferson B (2008c) Chlorine disinfection of grey water for reuse: effect of organics and particles. Water Res 42:483–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wurochekke AA, Mohamed RMS, Al-Gheethi AA, Amir HM, Matias-Peralta HM (2016) Household greywater treatment methods using natural materials and their hybrid system. J Water Health 14(6):914–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
    • 1
  • Efaq Ali Noman
    • 2
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
    • 1
  • J. D. Bala
    • 3
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
    • 1
  1. 1.Micro-Pollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Parit Raja, Batu PahatMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Science, Technology and Human DevelopmentsUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Parit Raja, Batu PahatMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology, School of Life SciencesFederal University of TechnologyMinnaNigeria

Personalised recommendations