Qualitative Characterization of Household Greywater in Developing Countries: A Comprehensive Review

  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
  • Efaq Ali Noman
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
  • J. D. Bala
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 87)


Greywater is a type of wastewater generated from household activities which include bathing, laundry and kitchen activities. Greywater has a lower quality than potable water, but it is of higher quality than sewage. This article is a qualitative review presenting the quantities and qualitative characteristics of greywater in developed and developing countries. The chapter aims at highlighting the presence of nitrogen, phosphorus and pathogenic microorganisms. This paper provides a comprehensive review of greywater in order to understand the physiochemical and microbiological composition of greywater which represents the first step in choosing the most appropriate technology for the treatment process and to best evaluate the health risks associated with greywater discharge into the environment.


Chemical Physical Microbiological composition Indicator bacteria 



The authors wish to thank the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) for supporting this research under FRGS vot 1574 and also the Research Management Centre (RMC) UTHM for providing grant IGSP U682 for this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
    • 1
  • Efaq Ali Noman
    • 2
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
    • 1
  • J. D. Bala
    • 3
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
    • 1
  1. 1.Micro-Pollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Parit Raja, Batu PahatMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Science, Technology and Human DevelopmentsUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Parit Raja, Batu PahatMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology, School of Life SciencesFederal University of TechnologyMinnaNigeria

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