Corrosion Processes of Carbonated Chloride-Contaminated Reinforced Concrete and Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) Efficiency

  • Yolaine TissierEmail author
  • Véronique Bouteiller
  • Elisabeth Marie-Victoire
  • Suzanne Joiret
  • Thierry Chaussadent
Conference paper
Part of the RILEM Bookseries book series (RILEM, volume 17)


Civil engineering structures and historical buildings can suffer from corrosion of the embedded reinforcing steel once the concrete cover is totally carbonated and/or when chloride ions have reached the steel/concrete interface. In practice, these two types of contamination can be encountered separately or combined requiring implementation of proper repair methods. In this research, carbonated and chloride-contaminated reinforced concrete specimens were studied by three main analysis means: electrochemical characterizations, Raman microspectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The specimens were contaminated in a two-step process involving addition of chlorides followed by carbonation of the complete cover. Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) was then performed as a repair treatment (1 A/m2 of steel surface during 8 weeks). The efficiency of the treatment and its impact on the steel/concrete interface and cement matrix were studied during the treatment, after steel depolarization and on the long term (several months) in order to evaluate the durability of the treatment. Electrochemical characterizations showed an increase of corrosion rates comparing the specimens after fabrication and after carbonation (from a negligible level of 0.1 µA/cm2 to values in excess of 10 µA/cm2). SEM observations confirmed this significant increase with the identification of a corrosion layer on most of the steel/concrete interface after carbonation. The ECE efficiency was evidenced by a decrease of chloride content below the practical threshold value of 0.4% by weight of cement after a two weeks treatment. Simultaneously a realkalisation ring was observed around the reinforcement bar having a diameter of about 1 cm after four weeks. Results obtained after depolarization showed that a two weeks ECE treatment allowed the stabilization of the corrosion state of the rebar.


Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) Realkalization Corrosion State Concrete Cover Corrosion Layer Thickness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Tissier Y, Bouteiller V, Marie-Victoire E, Joiret S, Chaussadent T (2016) Corrosion processes and ECE treatment in a both carbonated and chlorinated reinforced concrete. In: Materials systems and structures in civil engineering conference, 21–24, August 2016. Lingby, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tong YY (2009) Traitement électrochimique de réalcalinisation pour la réparation du béton armé dégradé par carbonatation, PhD thesis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie FranceGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    CEN/TS 14038-2 (2011), Electrochemical realkalisation and chloride extraction treatments for reinforced concrete - Part2: chloride extractionGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Herrera JCO, Escadeillas G, Arliguie G (2006) Electro-chemical chloride extraction: Influence of C3A of the cement on treatment efficiency. Cem Concr Res 36:1939–1946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Swamy RN, McHugh S (2006) Effectiveness and structural implications of electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforced concrete beams. Cem Concr Compos 28:722–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fajardo G, Escadeillas G, Arliguie G (2006) Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) from steel-reinforced concrete specimens contaminated by “artificial” sea-water. Corros Sci 48:110–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arya C, Sa’id-Shawqi Q, Vassie PRW (1996) Factors influencing electrochemical removal of chloride from concrete. Cem Concr Res 26:851–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boucherit N, Hugot-Le Goff A, Joiret S (1991) Raman studies of corrosion films grown on Fe and Fe-6Mo in pitting conditions. Corros Sci 32:497–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Andrade C, Alonso C (2004) Rilem TC 154-EMC Test methods for on-site corrosion rate measurement of steel reinforcement in concrete by means of the polarization resistance method. Mater Struct 37:623–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    EN 206 (2014) Concrete—Specification, performance, production and conformityGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    EN 14038-1 (2016) Electrochemical realkalisation and chloride extraction treatments for reinforced concrete Part1: RealkalisationGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yolaine Tissier
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Véronique Bouteiller
    • 1
  • Elisabeth Marie-Victoire
    • 2
  • Suzanne Joiret
    • 3
  • Thierry Chaussadent
    • 4
  1. 1.Université Paris-Est, MAST, SDOA, IFSTTARMarne-La-ValléeFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Recherche des Monuments HistoriquesChamps-sur-MarneFrance
  3. 3.Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LISE, UMR 8235, CNRSParisFrance
  4. 4.Université Paris-Est, MAST, CPDM, IFSTTARMarne-La-ValléeFrance

Personalised recommendations