Introduction, Problem, and Research Question
In this chapter, we explain why sociodemographic variables in cross-national comparative surveys cannot simply be translated, but rather must be harmonized. We define the concept of harmonization and outline its theoretical background and its implications for all phases of cross-national comparative survey projects. The chapter concludes with an overview of the contents of the book.
KeywordsSociodemographic variables Harmonization
Tables 3.4 and 3.7 are based on data from Eurostat, the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) and the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). The responsibility for all conclusions drawn from the data lies entirely with the authors.
Tables 3.5 and 3.6 are based on data from the European Social Survey (ESS). The data are available without restrictions, for not-for-profit purposes. In accordance with data protection regulations in participating countries, only anonymous data are available to users.
The authors would like to express their gratitude for the support extended to them and the permissions and authorizations to reproduce the tables and figures.
Finally, we extend our heartfelt thanks to our copy editor, Miriam Geoghegan.
- International Labour Organization (ILO) (2013). Statistics of work and of the labour force. Report for discussion at the meeting of experts in labour statistics on the advancement of employment and unemployment statistics (Geneva, 28 January–1 February, 2013). http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---stat/documents/event/wcms_175150.pdf. Retrieved on January 26, 2018.
- International Labour Organization (ILO) (2016). International standard classification of occupations. ISCO-08. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/stat/isco/isco08/index.htm. Retrieved on January 26, 2018.
- Eurydice (2016). Countries. Description of national education systems. https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Countries. Retrieved on January 26, 2018.
- Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, J. H. P., & Warner, U. (2006). Methodological discussion of the income measure in the European Social Survey Round 1. Metodološki zvezki, 3(2), 289–334.Google Scholar
- Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, J. H. P., & Warner, U. (2007). How to survey education for cross-national comparison: The Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik/Warner matrix of education. Metodološki zvezki, 4(2), 117–148.Google Scholar
- Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, J. H. P., & Warner, U. (2008). Private household concepts and their operationalisation in national and international social surveys. Mannheim: GESIS-ZUMA.Google Scholar
- Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, J. H. P., & Warner, U. (2009). Private household concepts and their operationalisation in cross-national social surveys. Metodološki zvezki, 6(1), 111–136.Google Scholar
- Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, J. H. P., & Warner, U. (2010). Measuring ethnicity in cross-national comparative survey research. Bonn: GESIS.Google Scholar
- Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, J. H. P., & Warner, U. (2011). Measuring occupation and labour status in cross-national comparative surveys. Bonn: GESIS.Google Scholar
- Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, J. H. P., & Warner, U. (2015). Design and development of the income measures in the European Social Surveys. Metodološki zvezki, 12(2), 85–110.Google Scholar
- Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, J. H. P., & Wolf, C. (2003). Comparing demographic and socio-economic variables across nations. Synthesis and recommendations. In J. H. P. Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik & C. Wolf (Eds.), Advances in cross-national comparison. A European working book for demographic and socio-economic variables (pp. 389–406). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jary, D., & Jary, J. (1995). Dictionary of sociology (2nd ed.). Glasgow: Harper Collins Publishers.Google Scholar
- Schwarz, N. (2008). The psychology of survey response. In W. Dornsbach & M. W. Traugott (Eds.), The Sage handbook of public opinion research (pp. 375–387). London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Smith, T. W. (2010). Surveying about nations and cultures. In P. V. Marsen & J. D. Wright (Eds.), Handbook of survey research (2nd ed., pp. 733–764). Emerald Group: Bingley.Google Scholar