Magnetic Field and Energy Errors
Due to small magnetic field errors the magnetic field in any real machine differs from the ideal linear lattice studied in the previous chapters. Also, the particle energy in the beam deviates from the reference energy for which the ideal closed orbit is designed. It is important to understand what new effects the non-ideal magnetic fields introduce to the particle motion. In this chapter, we study how the dipole and quadrupole field errors as well as small energy deviations affect the orbits.