Abstraction Refinement for Emptiness Checking of Alternating Data Automata
Abstract
Alternating automata have been widely used to model and verify systems that handle data from finite domains, such as communication protocols or hardware. The main advantage of the alternating model of computation is that complementation is possible in linear time, thus allowing to concisely encode trace inclusion problems that occur often in verification. In this paper we consider alternating automata over infinite alphabets, whose transition rules are formulae in a combined theory of Booleans and some infinite data domain, that relate past and current values of the data variables. The data theory is not fixed, but rather it is a parameter of the class. We show that union, intersection and complementation are possible in linear time in this model and, though the emptiness problem is undecidable, we provide two efficient semialgorithms, inspired by two stateoftheart abstraction refinement model checking methods: lazy predicate abstraction [8] and the Impact semialgorithm [17]. We have implemented both methods and report the results of an experimental comparison.
1 Introduction
The language inclusion problem is recognized as being central to verification of hardware, communication protocols and software systems. A property is a specification of the correct executions of a system, given as a set \(\mathcal {P}\) of executions, and the verification problem asks if the set \(\mathcal {S}\) of executions of the system under consideration is contained within \(\mathcal {P}\). This problem is at the core of widespread verification techniques, such as automatatheoretic model checking [23], where systems are specified as finitestate automata and properties defined using Linear Temporal Logic [21]. However the bottleneck of this and other related verification techniques is the intractability of language inclusion (PSPACEcomplete for finitestate automata over finite alphabets).
Alternation [3] was introduced as a generalization of nondeterminism, introducing universal, in addition to existential transitions. For automata over finite alphabets, the language inclusion problem can be encoded as the emptiness problem of an alternating automaton of linear size. Moreover, efficient exploration techniques based on antichains are shown to perform well for alternating automata over finite alphabets [5].
Using finite alphabets for the specification of properties and models is however very restrictive, when dealing with reallife computer systems, mostly because of the following reasons. On one hand, programs handle data from very large domains, that can be assumed to be infinite (64bit integers, floating point numbers, strings of characters, etc.) and their correctness must be specified in terms of the data values. On the other hand, systems must respond to strict deadlines, which requires temporal specifications as timed languages [1].
Although being convenient specification tools, automata over infinite alphabets lack the decidability properties ensured by finite alphabets. In general, when considering infinite data as part of the input alphabet, language inclusion is undecidable and, even complementation becomes impossible, for instance, for timed automata [1] or finitememory register automata [13]. One can recover theoretical decidability, by restricting the number of variables (clocks) in timed automata to one [20], or forbidding relations between current and past/future values, as with symbolic automata [24]. In such cases, also the emptiness problem for the alternating versions becomes decidable [4, 14].
In this paper, we present a new model of alternating automata over infinite alphabets consisting of pairs \((a,\nu )\) where a is an input event from a finite set and \(\nu \) is a valuation of a finite set \(\mathbf x\) of variables that range over an infinite domain. We assume that, at all times, the successive values taken by the variables in \(\mathbf x\) are an observable part of the language, in other words, there are no hidden variables in our model. The transition rules are specified by a set of formulae, in a combined firstorder theory of Boolean control states and data, that relate past with present values of the variables. We do not fix the data theory a priori, but rather consider it to be a parameter of the class.
A run over an input word \((a_1,\nu _1) \ldots (a_n,\nu _n)\) is a sequence \(\phi _0(\mathbf x_0) \Rightarrow \phi _1(\mathbf x_0,\mathbf x_1) \Rightarrow \ldots \Rightarrow \phi _n(\mathbf x_0,\ldots ,\mathbf x_n)\) of rewritings of the initial formula by substituting Boolean states with timestamped transition rules. The word is accepted if the final formula \(\phi _n(\mathbf x_0,\ldots ,\mathbf x_n)\) holds, when all timestamped variables \(\mathbf x_1,\ldots ,\mathbf x_n\) are substituted by their values in \(\nu _1,\ldots ,\nu _n\), all nonfinal states replaced by false and all final states by true.
The Boolean operations of union, intersection and complement can be implemented in linear time in this model, thus matching the complexity of performing these operations in the finitealphabet case. The price to be paid is that emptiness becomes undecidable, for which reason we provide two efficient semialgorithms for emptiness, based on lazy predicate abstraction [8] and the Impact method [17]. These algorithms are proven to terminate and return a word from the language of the automaton, if one exists, but termination is not guaranteed when the language is empty.
We have implemented the Boolean operations and emptiness checking semialgorithms and carried out experiments with examples taken from array logics [2], timed automata [9], communication protocols [25] and hardware verification [22].
Related Work. Data languages and automata have been defined previously, in a classical nondeterministic setting. For instance, Kaminski and Francez [13] consider languages, over an infinite alphabet of data, recognized by automata with a finite number of registers, that store the input data and compare it using equality. Just as the timed languages recognized by timed automata [1], these languages, called quasiregular, are not closed under complement, but their emptiness is decidable. The impossibility of complementation here is caused by the use of hidden variables, which we do not allow. Emptiness is however undecidable in our case, mainly because counting (incrementing and comparing to a constant) data values is allowed, in many data theories.
Another related model is that of predicate automata [6], which recognize languages over integer data by labeling the words with conjunctions of uninterpreted predicates. We intend to explore further the connection with our model of alternating data automata, in order to apply our method to the verification of parallel programs.
The model presented in this paper stems from the language inclusion problem considered in [11]. There we provide a semialgorithm for inclusion of data languages, based on an exponential determinization procedure and an abstraction refinement loop using lazy predicate abstraction [8]. In this work we consider the full model of alternation and rely entirely on the ability of SMT solvers to produce interpolants in the combined theory of Booleans and data. Since determinisation is not needed and complementation is possible in linear time, the bulk of the work is carried out by the solver.
The emptiness check for alternating data automata adapts similar semialgorithms for nondeterministic infinitestate programs to the alternating model of computation. In particular, we considered the stateoftheart Impact procedure [17] that is shown to outperform lazy predicate abstraction [8] in the nondeterministic case, and generalized it to cope with alternation. More recent approaches for interpolantbased abstraction refinement target Horn systems [10, 18], used to encode recursive and concurrent programs [7]. However, the emptiness of alternating word automata cannot be directly encoded using Horn clauses, because all the branches of the computation synchronize on the same input, which cannot be encoded by a finite number of local (equality) constraints. We believe that the lazy annotation techniques for Horn clauses are suited for branching computations, which we intend to consider in a future tree automata setting.
2 Preliminaries
A signature \(\mathsf {S}= (\mathsf {S}^\mathrm {s},\mathsf {S}^\mathrm {f})\) consists of a set \(\mathsf {S}^\mathrm {s}\) of sort symbols and a set \(\mathsf {S}^\mathrm {f}\) of sorted function symbols. To simplify the presentation, we assume w.l.o.g. that \(\mathsf {S}^\mathrm {s} = \left\{ \mathsf {Data},\mathsf {Bool} \right\} \)^{1} and each function symbol \(f \in \mathsf {S}^\mathrm {f}\) has \(\#(f) \ge 0\) arguments of sort \(\mathsf {Data}\) and return value \(\sigma (f) \in \mathsf {S}^\mathrm {s}\). If \(\#(f)=0\) then f is a constant. We consider constants \(\top \) and \(\bot \) of sort \(\mathsf {Bool}\).
Let \(\mathsf {Var}\) be an infinite countable set of variables, where each \(x \in \mathsf {Var}\) has an associated sort \(\sigma (x)\). A term t of sort \(\sigma (t)=S\) is a variable \(x \in \mathsf {Var}\) where \(\sigma (x)=S\), or \(f(t_1,\ldots ,t_{\#(f)})\) where \(t_1,\ldots ,t_{\#(f)}\) are terms of sort \(\mathsf {Data}\) and \(\sigma (f)=S\). An atom is a term of sort \(\mathsf {Bool}\) or an equality \(t \approx s\) between two terms of sort \(\mathsf {Data}\). A formula is an existentially quantified combination of atoms using disjunction \(\vee \), conjunction \(\wedge \) and negation \(\lnot \) and we write \(\phi \rightarrow \psi \) for \(\lnot \phi \vee \psi \).
We denote by \(\mathrm {FV}^{\sigma }(\phi )\) the set of free variables of sort \(\sigma \) in \(\phi \) and write \(\mathrm {FV}^{}(\phi )\) for \(\bigcup _{\sigma \in \mathsf {S}^\mathrm {s}} \mathrm {FV}^{\sigma }(\phi )\). For a variable \(x \in \mathrm {FV}^{}(\phi )\) and a term t such that \(\sigma (t) = \sigma (x)\), let \(\phi [t/x]\) be the result of replacing each occurrence of x by t. For indexed sets \(\mathbf t=\left\{ t_1,\ldots ,t_n \right\} \) and \(\mathbf x=\left\{ x_1,\ldots ,x_n \right\} \), we write \(\phi [\mathbf t/\mathbf x]\) for the formula obtained by simultaneously replacing \(x_i\) with \(t_i\) in \(\phi \), for all \(i\in [1,n]\). The size \({{\phi }}\) is the number of symbols occuring in \(\phi \).
An interpretation \(\mathcal {I}\) maps (1) the sort \(\mathsf {Data}\) into a nonempty set \(\mathsf {Data}^\mathcal {I}\), (2) the sort \(\mathsf {Bool}\) into the set \(\mathbb {B}= \left\{ \mathtt {true},\mathtt {false} \right\} \), where \(\top ^\mathcal {I}= \mathtt {true}\), \(\bot ^\mathcal {I}= \mathtt {false}\), and (3) each function symbol f into a total function \(f^\mathcal {I}: (\mathsf {Data}^\mathcal {I})^{\#(f)} \rightarrow \sigma (f)^I\), or an element of \(\sigma (f)^I\) when \(\#(f)=0\). Given an interpretation \(\mathcal {I}\), a valuation \(\nu \) maps each variable \(x \in \mathsf {Var}\) into an element \(\nu (x) \in \sigma (x)^\mathcal {I}\). For a term t, we denote by \(t^\mathcal {I}_\nu \) the value obtained by replacing each function symbol f by its interpretation \(f^\mathcal {I}\) and each variable x by its valuation \(\nu (x)\). For a formula \(\phi \), we write \(\mathcal {I},\nu \models \phi \) if the formula obtained by replacing each term t in \(\phi \) by the value \(t^\mathcal {I}_\nu \) is logically equivalent to true.
A formula \(\phi \) is satisfiable in the interpretation \(\mathcal {I}\) if there exists a valuation \(\nu \) such that \(\mathcal {I},\nu \models \phi \), and valid if \(\mathcal {I},\nu \models \phi \) for all valuations \(\nu \). The theory \(\mathbb {T}(\mathsf {S},\mathcal {I})\) is the set of valid formulae written in the signature \(\mathsf {S}\), with the interpretation \(\mathcal {I}\). A decision procedure for \(\mathbb {T}(\mathsf {S},\mathcal {I})\) is an algorithm that takes a formula \(\phi \) in the signature \(\mathsf {S}\) and returns yes iff \(\phi \in \mathbb {T}(\mathsf {S},\mathcal {I})\).
Given formulae \(\varphi \) and \(\psi \), we say that \(\phi \) entails \(\psi \), denoted \(\phi \models ^\mathcal {I}\psi \) iff \(\mathcal {I},\nu \models \varphi \) implies \(\mathcal {I},\nu \models \psi \), for each valuation \(\nu \), and \(\phi \Leftrightarrow ^\mathcal {I}\psi \) iff \(\phi \models ^\mathcal {I}\psi \) and \(\psi \models ^\mathcal {I}\phi \). We omit mentioning the interpretation \(\mathcal {I}\) when it is clear from the context.
3 Alternating Data Automata
In the rest of this section we fix an interpretation \(\mathcal {I}\) and a finite alphabet \(\varSigma \) of input events. Given a finite set \(\mathbf x \subset \mathsf {Var}\) of variables of sort \(\mathsf {Data}\), let \(\mathbf x \mapsto \mathsf {Data}^\mathcal {I}\) be the set of valuations of the variables \(\mathbf x\) and \(\varSigma [\mathbf x] = \varSigma \times (\mathbf x \mapsto \mathsf {Data}^\mathcal {I})\) be the set of data symbols. A data word (word in the sequel) is a finite sequence \((a_1,\nu _1)(a_2,\nu _2) \ldots (a_n,\nu _n)\) of data symbols, where \(a_1,\ldots ,a_n \in \varSigma \) and \(\nu _1,\ldots ,\nu _n : \mathbf x \rightarrow \mathsf {Data}^\mathcal {I}\) are valuations. We denote by \(\varepsilon \) the empty sequence, by \(\varSigma ^*\) the set of finite sequences of input events and by \(\varSigma [\mathbf x]^*\) the set of data words over \(\mathbf x\).
This definition generalizes the classical notion of words from a finite alphabet to the possibly infinite alphabet \(\varSigma [\mathbf x]\). Clearly, when \(\mathsf {Data}^\mathcal {I}\) is sufficiently large or infinite, we can map the elements of \(\varSigma \) into designated elements of \(\mathsf {Data}^\mathcal {I}\) and use a special variable to encode the input events. However, keeping \(\varSigma \) explicit in the following simplifies several technical points below, without cluttering the presentation.
Given sets of variables \(\mathbf b,\mathbf x \subset \mathsf {Var}\) of sort \(\mathsf {Bool}\) and \(\mathsf {Data}\), respectively, we denote by \(\mathsf {Form}(\mathbf b,\mathbf x)\) the set of formulae \(\phi \) such that \(\mathrm {FV}^{\mathsf {Bool}}(\phi ) \subseteq \mathbf b\) and \(\mathrm {FV}^{\mathsf {Data}}(\phi ) \subseteq \mathbf x\). By \(\mathsf {Form}^+(\mathbf b,\mathbf x)\) we denote the set of formulae from \(\mathsf {Form}(\mathbf b,\mathbf x)\) in which each Boolean variable occurs under an even number of negations.

\(\mathbf x \subset \mathsf {Var}\) is a finite set of variables of sort \(\mathsf {Data}\),

\(Q \subset \mathsf {Var}\) is a finite set of variables of sort \(\mathsf {Bool}\) (states),

\(\iota \in \mathsf {Form}^+(Q,\emptyset )\) is the initial configuration,

\(F \subseteq Q\) is a set of final states, and

\(\varDelta : Q \times \varSigma \rightarrow \mathsf {Form}^+(Q,\overline{\mathbf x}\cup \mathbf x)\) is a transition function, where \(\overline{\mathbf x}\) denotes \(\{\overline{x} \mid x \in \mathbf x\}\).
Example. Figure 1(a) depicts an ADA with input alphabet \(\varSigma = \left\{ a,b \right\} \), variables \(\mathbf x = \left\{ x,y \right\} \), states \(Q = \left\{ q_0,q_1,q_2,q_3,q_4 \right\} \), initial configuration \(q_0\), final states \(F=\left\{ q_3,q_4 \right\} \) and transitions given in Fig. 1(b), where missing rules, such as \(\varDelta (q_0,b)\), are assumed to be \(\bot \). Rules \(\varDelta (q_0,a)\) and \(\varDelta (q_1,a)\) are universal and there are no existential nondeterministic rules. Rules \(\varDelta (q_1,a)\) and \(\varDelta (q_2,a)\) compare past (\(\overline{x},\overline{y}\)) with present (x, y) values, \(\varDelta (q_0,a)\) constrains the present and \(\varDelta (q_1,b)\), \(\varDelta (q_2,b)\) the past values, respectively. \(\square \)
Example. The following sequence is a nonaccepting run of the ADA from Fig. 1 on the word \((a,\left\langle 0,0 \right\rangle ),(a,\left\langle 1,1 \right\rangle ),(b,\left\langle 2,1 \right\rangle )\), where \(\mathsf {Data}^\mathcal {I}= \mathbf{\mathbb {Z}}\) and the function symbols have standard arithmetic interpretation:
\(\square \)
 1.
Boolean closure: given automata \(\mathcal {A}_1\) and \(\mathcal {A}_2\), both with the same set of variables \(\mathbf x\), do there exist automata \(\mathcal {A}_\cup \), \(\mathcal {A}_\cap \) and \(\overline{\mathcal {A}_1}\) such that \(L(\mathcal {A}_\cup ) = \mathcal {A}_1 \cup \mathcal {A}_2\), \(L(A_\cap ) = \mathcal {A}_1 \cap \mathcal {A}_2\) and \(L(\overline{\mathcal {A}_1}) = \varSigma [\mathbf x]^* \setminus L(\mathcal {A}_1)\) ?
 2.
emptiness: given an automaton \(\mathcal {A}\), is \(L(\mathcal {A}) = \emptyset \) ?
It is well known that other problems, such as universality (given automaton \(\mathcal {A}\) with variables \(\mathbf x\), does \(L(\mathcal {A}) = \varSigma [\mathbf x]^*\)?) and inclusion (given automata \(\mathcal {A}_1\) and \(\mathcal {A}_2\) with the same set of variables, does \(L(\mathcal {A}_1) \subseteq L(\mathcal {A}_2)\)?) can be reduced to the above problems. Observe furthermore that we do not consider cases in which the sets of variables in the two automata differ. An interesting problem in this case would be: given automata \(\mathcal {A}_1\) and \(\mathcal {A}_2\), with variables \(\mathbf x_1\) and \(\mathbf x_2\), respectively, such that \(\mathbf x_1 \subseteq \mathbf x_2\), does \(L(\mathcal {A}_1) \subseteq {L(\mathcal {A}_2)}\!\!\downarrow _{{\mathbf x_1}}\), where \({L(\mathcal {A}_2)}\!\!\downarrow _{{\mathbf x_1}}\) is the projection of the set of words \(L(\mathcal {A}_2)\) onto the variables \(\mathbf x_1\)? This problem is considered as future work.
3.1 Boolean Closure
Lemma 1
Given automata \(\mathcal {A}_i = \left\langle \mathbf x,Q_i,\iota _i,F_i,\varDelta _i \right\rangle \), for \(i=1,2\), such that \(Q_1 \cap Q_2 = \emptyset \), we have \(L(\mathcal {A}_\cup ) = L(\mathcal {A}_1) \cup L(\mathcal {A}_2)\), \(L(\mathcal {A}_\cap ) = L(\mathcal {A}_1) \cap L(\mathcal {A}_2)\) and \(L(\overline{\mathcal {A}_1}) = \varSigma [\mathbf x]^* \setminus L(\mathcal {A}_1)\).
It is easy to see that \({{\mathcal {A}_\cup }} = {{\mathcal {A}_\cap }} = {{\mathcal {A}_1}} + {{\mathcal {A}_2}}\) and \({{\overline{\mathcal {A}}}} = {{\mathcal {A}}}\), thus the automata for the Boolean operations, including complementation, can be built in linear time. This matches the lineartime bounds for intersection and complementation of alternating automata over finite alphabets [3].
4 Antichains and Interpolants for Emptiness
The emptiness problem for ADA is undecidable, even in very simple cases. For instance, if \(\mathsf {Data}^\mathcal {I}\) is the set of positive integers, an ADA can simulate an Alternating Vector Addition System with States (AVASS) using only atoms \(x \ge k\) and \(x = \overline{x} + k\), for \(k \in \mathbf{\mathbb {Z}}\), with the classical interpretation of the function symbols on integers. Since reachability of a control state is undecidable for AVASS [15], ADA emptiness is undecidable.
 (i)
given an automaton \(\mathcal {A}\), if \(L(\mathcal {A}) \ne \emptyset \), the procedure will terminate and return a word \(w \in L(\mathcal {A})\), and
 (ii)
if the procedure terminates without returning such a word, then \(L(\mathcal {A}) = \emptyset \).
Since no Boolean variable from Q occurs under negation in \(\phi \), it is easy to prove the following monotonicity property: given two formulae \(\phi ,\psi \in \mathsf {Form}^+(Q,\mathbf x)\) if \(\phi \models \psi \) then \(\mathsf {Post}_{\mathcal {A}}(\phi ,u) \models \mathsf {Post}_{\mathcal {A}}(\psi ,u)\), for any \(u \in \varSigma ^*\). This suggest an improvement of the above semialgorithm, that enumerates and stores only a set \(U \subseteq \varSigma ^*\) for which \(\left\{ \mathsf {Post}_{\mathcal {A}}(\phi ,u) \mid u \in U \right\} \) forms an antichain^{3} w.r.t. the entailment partial order. This is because, for any \(u,v \in \varSigma ^*\), if \(\mathsf {Post}_{\mathcal {A}}(\iota ,u) \models \mathsf {Post}_{\mathcal {A}}(\iota ,v)\) and \(\mathsf {Acc}_{\mathcal {A}}(uw)\) is satisfiable for some \(w \in \varSigma ^*\), then \(\mathsf {Post}_{\mathcal {A}}(\iota ,uw) \models \mathsf {Post}_{\mathcal {A}}(\iota ,vw)\), thus \(\mathsf {Acc}_{\mathcal {A}}(vw)\) is satisfiable as well, and there is no need for u, since the nonemptiness of \(\mathcal {A}\) can be proved using v alone. However, even with this optimization, the enumeration of sequences from \(\varSigma ^*\) diverges in many real cases, because infinite antichains exist in many interpretations, e.g. \(q \wedge x \approx 0,~ q \wedge x \approx 1, \ldots \) for \(\mathsf {Data}^\mathcal {I}= \mathbf{\mathbb {N}}\).
 1.
\(\mathcal {I},\beta \cup \nu \models \mathsf {Post}_{\mathcal {A}}(\iota ,u) \Rightarrow \nu \in \mathsf {I}(\beta )\), and
 2.
If \(\mathsf {I}\) satisfies only the first point above, we call it an invariant. Intuitively, a safety invariant maps every Boolean valuation into a set of data valuations, that contains the initial configuration \(\iota \equiv \mathsf {Post}_{\mathcal {A}}(\iota ,\varepsilon )\), whose data variables are unconstrained, overapproximates the set of reachable valuations (point 1) and excludes the valuations satisfying the acceptance condition (point 2). A formula \(\phi (Q,\mathbf x)\) is said to define \(\mathsf {I}\) iff for all \(\beta : Q \rightarrow \mathbb {B}\) and \(\nu : \mathbf x \rightarrow \mathsf {Data}^\mathcal {I}\), we have \(\mathcal {I},\beta \cup \nu \models \phi \) iff \(\nu \in \mathsf {I}(\beta )\).
Lemma 2
For any automaton \(\mathcal {A}\), we have \(L(\mathcal {A}) = \emptyset \) if and only if \(\mathcal {A}\) has a safety invariant.
Turning back to the issue of divergence of language emptiness semialgorithms in the case \(L(\mathcal {A}) = \emptyset \), we can observe that an enumeration of input sequences \(u_1,u_2,\ldots \in \varSigma ^*\) can stop at step k as soon as \(\bigvee _{i=1}^k \mathsf {Post}_{\mathcal {A}}(\iota ,u_i)\) defines a safety invariant for \(\mathcal {A}\). Although this condition can be effectively checked using a decision procedure for the theory \(\mathbb {T}(\mathsf {S},\mathcal {I})\), there is no guarantee that this check will ever succeed.
The solution we adopt in the sequel is abstraction to ensure the termination of invariant computations. However, it is worth pointing out from the start that abstraction alone will only allow us to build invariants that are not necessarily safety invariants. To meet the latter condition, we resort to counterexample guided abstraction refinement (CEGAR).
Lemma 3
For any bijection \(\mu : \mathbf{\mathbb {N}}\rightarrow \varSigma ^*\), there exists \(k>0\) such that \(\bigvee _{i=0}^k {\mathsf {Post}}^\sharp _{\mathcal {A}}(\iota ,\mu (i))\) defines an invariant \({\mathsf {I}}^\sharp \) for \(\mathcal {A}\).
We are left with fulfilling point (2) from the definition of a safety invariant. To this end, suppose that, for a given set \(\mathsf {\Pi }\) of predicates, the invariant \({\mathsf {I}}^\sharp \), defined by the previous lemma, meets point (1) but not point (2), where \(\mathsf {Post}_{\mathcal {A}}\) and \(\mathsf {Acc}_{\mathcal {A}}\) replace \({\mathsf {Post}}^\sharp _{\mathcal {A}}\) and \({\mathsf {Acc}}^\sharp _{\mathcal {A}}\), respectively. In other words, there exists a finite sequence \(u \in \varSigma ^*\) such that \(\nu \in {\mathsf {I}}^\sharp (\beta )\) and \(\mathcal {I},\beta \cup \nu \models {\mathsf {Acc}}^\sharp _{\mathcal {A}}(u)\), for some Boolean \(\beta : Q \rightarrow \mathbb {B}\) and data \(\nu : \mathbf x \rightarrow \mathsf {Data}^\mathcal {I}\) valuations. Such a \(u\in \varSigma ^*\) is called a counterexample.
Once a counterexample u is discovered, there are two possibilities. Either (i) \(\mathsf {Acc}_{\mathcal {A}}(u)\) is satisfiable, in which case u is feasible and \(L(\mathcal {A}) \ne \emptyset \), or (ii) \(\mathsf {Acc}_{\mathcal {A}}(u)\) is unsatisfiable, in which case u is spurious. In the first case, our semialgorithm stops and returns a witness for nonemptiness, obtained from the satisfying valuation of \(\mathsf {Acc}_{\mathcal {A}}(u)\) and in the second case, we must strenghten the invariant by excluding from \({\mathsf {I}}^\sharp \) all pairs \((\beta ,\nu )\) such that \(\mathcal {I},\beta \cup \nu \models {\mathsf {Acc}}^\sharp _{\mathcal {A}}(u)\). This strengthening is carried out by adding to \(\mathsf {\Pi }\) several predicates that are sufficient to exclude the spurious counterexample.
Given an unsatisfiable conjunction of formulae \(\psi _1 \wedge \ldots \wedge \psi _n\), an interpolant is a tuple of formulae \(\left\langle I_1,\ldots ,I_{n1},I_n \right\rangle \) such that \(I_n \equiv \bot \), \(I_i \wedge \psi _i \models _\mathcal {T}I_{i+1}\) and \(I_i\) contains only variables and function symbols that are common to \(\psi _i\) and \(\psi _{i+1}\), for all \(i \in [n1]\). Moreover, by Lyndon’s Interpolation Theorem [16], we can assume without loss of generality that every Boolean variable with at least one positive (negative) occurrence in \(I_i\) has at least one positive (negative) occurrence in both \(\psi _i\) and \(\psi _{i+1}\). In the following, we shall assume the existence of an interpolating decision procedure for \(\mathbb {T}(\mathsf {S},\mathcal {I})\) that meets the requirements of Lyndon’s Interpolation Theorem.
A classical method for abstraction refinement is to add the elements of the interpolant obtained from a proof of spuriousness to the set of predicates. This guarantees progress, meaning that the particular spurious counterexample, from which the interpolant was generated, will never be revisited in the future. Though not always, in many practical test cases this progress property eventually yields a safety invariant.

\(R_0 = \mathrm {FV}^{\mathsf {Bool}}(\theta _0)\),

\(\theta _\ell \equiv \bigwedge _{q_{\ell 1}\in R_{\ell 1}} (q_{\ell 1} \rightarrow \varDelta (q,a_\ell )[Q_\ell /Q,\mathbf x_{\ell 1}/\overline{\mathbf x},\mathbf x_\ell /\mathbf x])\) and \(R_\ell = \mathrm {FV}^{\mathsf {Bool}}(\theta _\ell ) \cap Q_\ell \), for each \(\ell \in [1,n]\).

\(\theta _{n+1}(Q_n) \equiv \bigwedge _{q \in Q \setminus F} (q_n \rightarrow \bot )\).
The main idea behind the above definition of the interpolation problem is that we would like to obtain an interpolant \(\left\langle \top ,I_0(Q), I_1(Q,\mathbf x), \ldots , I_{n}(Q,\mathbf x),\bot \right\rangle \) whose formulae combine states with the data constraints that must hold locally, whenever the control reaches a certain Boolean configuration. This association of states with data valuations is tantamount to defining efficient semialgorithms, based on lazy abstraction [8]. Furthermore, the abstraction defined by the interpolants generated in this way can also overapproximate the control structure of an automaton, in addition to the sets of data values encountered throughout its runs.
The correctness of this interpolationbased abstraction refinement setup is captured by the progress property below, which guarantees that adding the formulae of an interpolant for \(\varTheta (u)\) to the set \(\mathsf {\Pi }\) of predicates suffices to exclude the spurious counterexample u from future searches.
Lemma 4
 1.
\(\varTheta (u)\) is unsatisfiable, and
 2.
if \(\left\langle \top ,I_0,\dots ,I_{n},\bot \right\rangle \) is an interpolant for \(\varTheta (u)\) such that \(\left\{ I_i \mid i \in [0,n] \right\} \subseteq \mathsf {\Pi }\) then \({\mathsf {Acc}}^\sharp _{\mathcal {A}}(u)\) is unsatisfiable.
5 Lazy Predicate Abstraction for ADA Emptiness

N is a set of nodes,

\(E \subseteq N \times \varSigma \times N\) is a set of edges,

\(\mathtt {r}\in N\) is the root of the directed tree (N, E),

\(\varLambda : N \rightarrow \mathsf {Form}(Q,\mathbf x)\) is a labeling of the nodes with formulae, such that \(\varLambda (\mathtt {r}) = \iota \),

\(R : N \rightarrow 2^Q\) is a labeling of nodes with replacement sets, such that \(R(\mathtt {r}) = \mathrm {FV}^{\mathsf {Bool}}(\iota )\),

\(T : E \rightarrow \bigcup _{i=0}^\infty \mathsf {Form}^+(Q_i,\mathbf x_i,Q_{i+1},\mathbf x_{i+1})\) is a labeling of edges with timestamped formulae, and

\(\lhd \subseteq N \times N\) is a set of covering edges.
With these considerations, Algorithm 1 uses a worklist iteration to build an ART. We keep newly expanded nodes of \(\mathcal {T}\) in a queue \(\mathtt {WorkList}\), thus implementing a breadthfirst exploration strategy, which guarantees that the shortest counterexamples are explored first. When the search encounters a counterexample candidate u, it is checked for spuriousness. If the counterexample is feasible, the procedure returns a data word \(w \in L(\mathcal {A})\), which interleaves the input events of u with the data valuations from the model of \(\mathsf {Acc}_{\mathcal {A}}(u)\) (since u is feasible, clearly \(\mathsf {Acc}_{\mathcal {A}}(u)\) is satisfiable). Otherwise, u is spurious and we compute its pivot p (line 12), add the interpolants for the least unfeasible suffix of u to \(\mathsf {\Pi }\), remove and recompute the subtree of \(\mathcal {T}\) rooted at p.
Termination of Algorithm 1 depends on the ability of a given interpolating decision procedure for the combined Boolean and data theory \(\mathbb {T}(\mathsf {S},\mathcal {I})\) to provide interpolants that yield a safety invariant, whenever \(L(\mathcal {A}) = \emptyset \). In this case, we use the covering relation \(\lhd \) to ensure that, when a newly generated node is covered by a node already in N, it is not added to the worklist, thus cutting the current branch of the search.
Formally, for any two nodes \(n,m \in N\), we have \(n \lhd m\) iff \({\mathsf {Post}}^\sharp _{\mathcal {A}}(\varLambda (n),a) \models \varLambda (m)\) for some \(a \in \varSigma \), in other words, if n has a successor whose label entails the label of m.
Example. Consider the automaton given in Fig. 1. First, Algorithm 1 fires the sequence a, and since there are no other formulae than \(\bot \) in \(\mathsf {\Pi }\), the successor of \(\iota \equiv q_0\) is \(\top \), in Fig. 2(a). The spuriousness check for a yields the root of the ART as pivot and the interpolant \(\left\langle q_0,q_1 \right\rangle \), which is added to the set \(\mathsf {\Pi }\). Then the \(\top \) node is removed and the next time a is fired, it creates a node labeled \(q_1\). The second sequence aa creates a successor node \(q_1\), which is covered by the first, depicted with a dashed arrow, in Fig. 2(b). The third sequence is ab, which results in a new uncovered node \(\top \) and triggers a spuriousness check. The new predicate obtained from this check is \(x\le 0\wedge q_2 \wedge y\ge 0\) and the pivot is again the root. Then the entire ART is rebuilt with the new predicates and the fourth sequence aab yields an uncovered node \(\top \), in Fig. 2(c). The new pivot is the endpoint of a and the newly added predicates are \(q_1\wedge q_2\) and \(y>x1 \wedge q_2\). Finally, the ART is rebuilt from the pivot node and finally all nodes are covered, thus proving the emptiness of the automaton, in Fig. 2(d). \(\square \)
Theorem 1
Given an automaton \(\mathcal {A}\), such that \(L(\mathcal {A}) \ne \emptyset \), Algorithm 1 terminates and returns a word \(w \in L(\mathcal {A})\). If Algorithm 1 terminates reporting \(\mathtt {true}\), then \(L(\mathcal {A}) = \emptyset \).
6 Checking ADA Emptiness with Impact
As pointed out by a number of authors, the bottleneck of predicate abstraction is the high cost of reconstructing parts of the ART, subsequent to the refinement of the set of predicates. The main idea of the Impact procedure [17] is that this can be avoided and the refinement (strengthening of the node labels of the ART) can be performed inplace. This refinement step requires an update of the covering relation, because a node that used to cover another node might not cover it after the strengthening of its label.
The execution of Algorithm 2 consists of three phases^{5}: close, refine and expand. Let n be a node removed from the worklist at line 4. If \(\mathsf {Acc}_{\mathcal {A}}(\lambda (n))\) is satisfiable, the counterexample \(\lambda (n)\) is feasible, in which case a model of \(\mathsf {Acc}_{\mathcal {A}}(\lambda (n))\) is obtained and a word \(w \in L(\mathcal {A})\) is returned. Otherwise, \(\lambda (n)\) is a spurious counterexample and the procedure enters the refinement phase (lines 11–18). The interpolant for \(\varTheta (\lambda (n))\) (cf. formula 1) is used to strenghten the labels of all the ancestors of n, by conjoining the formulae of the interpolant to the existing labels.
In this process, the nodes on the path between \(\mathtt {r}\) and n, including n, might become eligible for coverage, therefore we attempt to close each ancestor of n that is impacted by the refinement (line 18). Observe that, in this case the call to Open image in new window must uncover each node which is covered by a successor of n (line 4 of the Open image in new window function). This is required because, due to the overapproximation of the sets of reachable configurations, the covering relation is not transitive, as explained in [17]. If Open image in new window adds a covering edge \((n_i,m)\) to \(\lhd \), it does not have to be called for the successors of \(n_i\) on this path, which is handled via the Boolean flag b.
Example. We show the execution of Algorithm 2 on the automaton from Fig. 1. Initially, the procedure fires the sequence a, whose endpoint is labeled with \(\top \), in Fig. 3(a). Since this node is uncovered, we check the spuriousness of the counterexample a and refine the label of the node to \(q_1\). Since the node is still uncovered, two successors, labeled with \(\top \) are computed, corresponding to the sequences aa and ab, in Fig. 3(b). The spuriousness check for aa yields the interpolant \(\left\langle q_0,x\le 0\wedge q_2 \wedge y\ge 0 \right\rangle \) which strengthens the label of the endpoint of a from \(q_1\) to \(q_1\wedge x\le 0\wedge q_2\wedge y\ge 0\). The sequence ab is also found to be spurious, which changes the label of its endpoint from \(\top \) to \(\bot \), and also covers it (depicted with a dashed edge). Since the endpoint of aa is not covered, it is expanded to aaa and aab, in Fig. 3(c). Both sequences aaa and aab are found to be spurious, and the enpoint of aab, whose label has changed from \(\top \) to \(\bot \), is now covered. In the process, the label of aa has also changed from \(q_1\) to \(q_1 \wedge y>x1 \wedge q_2\), due to the sstrengthening with the interpolant from aab. Finally, the only uncovered node aaa is expanded to aaaa and aaab, both found to be spurious, in Fig. 3(d). The refinement of aaab causes the label of aaa to change from \(q_1\) to \(q_1 \wedge y>x1 \wedge q_2\) and this node is now covered by aa. Since its successors are also covered, there are no uncovered nodes and the procedure returns \(\mathtt {true}\). \(\square \)
The correctness of Algorithm 2 is coined by the theorem below:
Theorem 2
Given an automaton \(\mathcal {A}\), such that \(L(\mathcal {A}) \ne \emptyset \), Algorithm 2 terminates and returns a word \(w \in L(\mathcal {A})\). If Algorithm 2 terminates reporting \(\mathtt {true}\), then \(L(\mathcal {A}) = \emptyset \).
7 Experimental Evaluation
.
Example  \({{\mathcal {A}}}\) (bytes)  \(L(\mathcal {A})=\emptyset \) ?  Algorithm 1 (sec)  Algorithm 2 (sec)  Includer (sec) 

simple1  309  No  0.774  0.064  0.076 
simple2  504  Yes  0.867  0.070  0.070 
simple3  214  Yes  0.899  0.095  0.095 
array_shift  874  Yes  2.889  0.126  0.078 
array_simple  3440  Yes  Timeout  9.998  7.154 
array_rotation1  1834  Yes  7.227  0.331  0.229 
array_rotation2  15182  Yes  Timeout  Timeout  31.632 
abp  6909  No  9.492  0.631  2.288 
train  1823  Yes  19.237  0.763  0.678 
hw1  322  Yes  1.861  0.163  0.172 
hw2  674  Yes  24.111  0.308  0.473 
The results of the experiments are given in Table 1. We applied the tool first to several array logic entailments, which occur as verification conditions for imperative programs with arrays [2] (array_shift, array_simple, array_rotation1+2) available online [19]. Next, we applied it on proving safety properties of hardware circuits (hw1+2) [22]. Finally, we considered two timed communication protocols, consisting of systems that are asynchronous compositions of timed automata, whom correctness specifications are given by timed automata monitors: a timed version of the Alternating Bit Protocol (abp) [25] and a controller of a railroad crossing (train) [9]. All results were obtained on x86_64 Linux Ubuntu virtual machine with 8 GB of RAM running on an Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E52683 v3 @ 2.00 GHz. The automata sizes are given in bytes needed to store their ASCII description on file and the execution times are in seconds.
As in the case of nonalternating nondeterministic integer programs [17], the alternating version of Impact (Algorithm 2) outperforms lazy predicate abstraction for checking emptiness by at least one order of magnitude. Moreover, Impact is comparable, on average, to the previous implementation of Includer, which uses also MathSAT5 via the C API. We believe the reason for which Includer outperforms Impact on some examples is the hardness of the UFLIA entailment checks used in Algorithm 2 (lines 14 and 3 in the function Open image in new window ) as opposed to the pure LIA entailment checks used in Includer. According to our statistics, Algorithm 2 spends more than 50% of the time waiting for the SMT solver to finish answering entailment queries.
Footnotes
 1.
The generalization to more than two sorts is without difficulty, but would unnecessarily clutter the technical presentation.
 2.
Since each state occurs positively in \(\mathsf {Acc}_{\mathcal {A}}(u)\), this formula has a model iff it has a model with every \(q \in F\) set to true.
 3.
Given a partial order \((D,\preceq )\) an antichain is a set \(A \subseteq D\) such that \(a \not \preceq b\) for any \(a,b \in A\).
 4.
Though termination is not guaranteed, we call it algorithm for conciseness.
 5.
Corresponding to the Close, Refine and Expand in [17].
 6.
The implementation is available at https://github.com/cathiec/JAltImpact.
 7.
 8.
 9.
References
 1.Alur, R., Dill, D.L.: A theory of timed automata. Theor. Comput. Sci. 126(2), 183–235 (1994)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
 2.Bozga, M., Habermehl, P., Iosif, R., Konečný, F., Vojnar, T.: Automatic verification of integer array programs. In: Bouajjani, A., Maler, O. (eds.) CAV 2009. LNCS, vol. 5643, pp. 157–172. Springer, Heidelberg (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/9783642026584_15CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
 3.Chandra, A.K., Kozen, D.C., Stockmeyer, L.J.: Alternation. J. ACM 28(1), 114–133 (1981)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
 4.D’Antoni, L., Kincaid, Z., Wang, F.: A symbolic decision procedure for symbolic alternating finite automata. CoRR, abs/1610.01722 (2016)Google Scholar
 5.De Wulf, M., Doyen, L., Maquet, N., Raskin, J.F.: Antichains: alternative algorithms for LTL satisfiability and modelchecking. In: Ramakrishnan, C.R., Rehof, J. (eds.) TACAS 2008. LNCS, vol. 4963, pp. 63–77. Springer, Heidelberg (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/9783540788003_6CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
 6.Farzan, A., Kincaid, Z., Podelski, A.: Proof spaces for unbounded parallelism. SIGPLAN Not. 50(1), 407–420 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
 7.Grebenshchikov, S., Lopes, N.P., Popeea, C., Rybalchenko, A.: Synthesizing software verifiers from proof rules. SIGPLAN Not. 47(6), 405–416 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
 8.Henzinger, T.A., Jhala, R., Majumdar, R., Sutre, G.: Lazy abstraction. SIGPLAN Not. 37(1), 58–70 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
 9.Henzinger, T.A., Nicollin, X., Sifakis, J., Yovine, S.: Symbolic model checking for realtime systems. Inf. Comput. 111, 394–406 (1992)MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
 10.Hoder, K., Bjørner, N.: Generalized property directed reachability. In: Cimatti, A., Sebastiani, R. (eds.) SAT 2012. LNCS, vol. 7317, pp. 157–171. Springer, Heidelberg (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/9783642316128_13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
 11.Iosif, R., Rogalewicz, A., Vojnar, T.: Abstraction refinement and antichains for trace inclusion of infinite state systems. In: Chechik, M., Raskin, J.F. (eds.) TACAS 2016. LNCS, vol. 9636, pp. 71–89. Springer, Heidelberg (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/9783662496749_5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
 12.Iosif, R., Xu, X.: Artifact related to abstraction refinement for emptiness checking of alternating data automata. In: TACAS 2018 (2018). https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5925472.v1
 13.Kaminski, M., Francez, N.: Finitememory automata. Theor. Comput. Sci. 134(2), 329–363 (1994)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
 14.Lasota, S., Walukiewicz, I.: Alternating timed automata. In: Sassone, V. (ed.) FoSSaCS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3441, pp. 250–265. Springer, Heidelberg (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/9783540319825_16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
 15.Lincoln, P., Mitchell, J., Scedrov, A., Shankar, N.: Decision problems for propositional linear logic. Ann. Pure Appl. Logic 56(1), 239–311 (1992)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
 16.Lyndon, R.C.: An interpolation theorem in the predicate calculus. Pacific J. Math. 9(1), 129–142 (1959)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
 17.McMillan, K.L.: Lazy abstraction with interpolants. In: Ball, T., Jones, R.B. (eds.) CAV 2006. LNCS, vol. 4144, pp. 123–136. Springer, Heidelberg (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/11817963_14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
 18.McMillan, K.L.: Lazy annotation revisited. In: Biere, A., Bloem, R. (eds.) CAV 2014. LNCS, vol. 8559, pp. 243–259. Springer, Cham (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/9783319088679_16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
 19.Numerical Transition Systems Repository (2012). http://nts.imag.fr/index.php/Flata
 20.Ouaknine, J., Worrell, J.: On the language inclusion problem for timed automata: closing a decidability gap. In: Proceedings of LICS 2004, pp. 54–63 (2004)Google Scholar
 21.Pnueli, A.: The temporal logic of programs. In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, SFCS 1977, pp. 46–57. IEEE (1977)Google Scholar
 22.Smrcka, A., Vojnar, T.: Verifying parametrised hardware designs via counter automata. In: HVC 2007, pp. 51–68 (2007)Google Scholar
 23.Vardi, M., Wolper, P.: Reasoning about infinite computations. Inf. Comput. 115(1), 1–37 (1994)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
 24.Veanes, M., Hooimeijer, P., Livshits, B., Molnar, D., Bjorner, N.: Symbolic finite state transducers: algorithms and applications. In: Proceedings of POPL 2012. ACM (2012)Google Scholar
 25.Zbrzezny, A., Polrola, A.: Satbased reachability checking for timed automata with discrete data. Fundamenta Informaticae 79, 1–15 (2007)MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
Copyright information
Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this book are included in the book's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the book's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.