Conclusion: Expanding the Concept of ‘Containment’

  • Erin Dej
  • Jennifer M. Kilty


This chapter conceptualizes the notion of ‘containment’ in its different capacities and forms, reconsidering what it means to live within an institutional context and to experience institutionalization, taking care to think through how gender intersects with other markers of systemic oppression, including race, Indigeneity, sexuality, and class. Intersectional oppressions impact how we think about and discursively constitute different groups of people as mad, sick, or mentally ill and how these discursive characterizations and classifications contribute to institutional/ization efforts to contain, surveil, control, and otherwise re/transform marginalized bodies. Drawing from the discussions offered throughout the chapters we consider how this plays out differently for men, women, and transgender people, noting similarities across different institutional sites. It is our hope that this collection will inspire critical discussion about the role and power we continue to afford psy discourses and practices to name, identify, classify, and intervene upon the lives of disparate groups of people and how gender and other identity and status markers come to affect the material experiences of men and women caught up in different institutional forms of containment.


  1. Beckett, K., and N. Murakawa. 2012. Mapping the Shadow Carceral State: Towards an Institutionally Capacious Approach to Punishment. Theoretical Criminology 16 (2): 221–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Butler, J. 2004. Undoing Gender. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Cohen, S. 1979. The Punitive City: Notes on the Dispersal of Social Control. Crime, Law and Social Change 3 (4): 339–363.Google Scholar
  4. ———. 1985. Visions of Social Control: Crime, Punishment and Classification. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  5. Crenshaw, K. 1989. Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics. The University of Chicago Legal Forum 140: 139–167.Google Scholar
  6. Davis, A.Y. 1983. Women, Race, & Class. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  7. De Giorgi, A., and B. Fleury-Steiner. 2017. Editor’s Introduction. Social Justice 44 (2–3): 1–9.Google Scholar
  8. Feeley, M.M., and J. Simon. 1992. The New Penology: Notes on the Emerging Strategy of Corrections and Its Implications. Criminology 30 (4): 449–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Foucault, M. 1979. Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translated by Alan Sheridan. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  10. ———. 1980. Two Lectures. In Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977, ed. C. Gordon, 79–108. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  11. Garland, D. 2001. The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  12. Guenther, L. 2013. Solitary Confinement: Social Death and Its Afterlives. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hancock, B.H., and R. Garner. 2011. Towards a Philosophy of Containment: Reading Goffman in the 21st Century. The American Sociologist 42 (4): 316–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hill Collins, P. 1993. Toward a New Vision: Race, Class, and Gender as Categories of Analysis and Connection. Race, Sex & Class 1 (1): 25–45.Google Scholar
  15. ———. 2000. Black Feminist Thought. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. hooks, b. 2000. Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center. 2nd ed. Cambridge: South End Press.Google Scholar
  17. Loader, I. 2009. Ice Cream and Incarceration. Punishment & Society 11 (2): 241–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lowman, J., R.J. Menzies, and T.S. Palys. 1987. Introduction: Transcarceration and the Modern State of Penality. In Transcarceration: Essays in the Sociology of Social Control, ed. J. Lowman, R.J. Menzies, and T.S. Palys, 1–15. Aldershot: Gower Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  19. Pratt, J. 2002. Punishment and Civilization. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  20. Reckless, W. 1961. A New Theory of Delinquency and Crime. Federal Probation 25: 42–46.Google Scholar
  21. Sim, J. 2009. Punishment and Prisons: Power and the Carceral State. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Spivak, G.C. 1988. Can the Subaltern Speak? In Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, ed. C. Nelson and L. Grossberg, 271–311. Illinois: Board of Trustees of the Univeristy of Illinois.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CriminologyWilfrid Laurier UniversityBrantfordCanada
  2. 2.Department of CriminologyUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations