Holm Oak Quercus ilex L.
The holm oak is an evergreen tree species representative of Mediterranean forests. The largest populations of this species are in the Iberian Peninsula, forming the tree cover of an agro-silvo-pastoral system called “dehesa” in Spain and “montado” in Portugal. The high ecological and economic value of the species is of interest for rural development. The main current product are the acorns used for feeding Iberian black pigs, which are the basis of an important gastronomic industry. In addition, several bioactive compounds with new potential industrial applications in nutrition, pharmacology and cosmetics have been identified in acorns of oak species. Plantations with holm oak seedlings mycorrhized with Tuber melanosporum are been carried out for the production of the highly demanded black truffle. Vegetative propagation can be a main tool in the domestication of this forest species. Cloning plants from tissues of adult donor trees is desirable because selection is more reliable at mature stages. The present chapter deals with plant regeneration protocols by somatic embryogenesis from tissues of adult trees. The induction in male catkins, developing ovules and apexes and expanding leaves from in vitro cultured shoots is described. A description of methods for the cryopreservation of embryogenic lines is also provided.
This work is being supported by research projects co-financed by the Spanish Government and the EU (AGL2013-47400-C4 and AGL2016-76143-C4).
- Arrillaga I, Morcillo M, Cano M, Sales E, Peris JB, Segura J, Orlando L, Alborch A, Cano V, Corredoira E, Martínez MT, Cernadas MJ, Montenegro R, Vieitez FJ, Nisa M, Ramírez N, Hernández I., Ruiz-Galea M, González-Cabrero N, Celestino C, Montalbán I, Alegre J, Ballester A, Moncaleán P, San-José MC, Toribio M (2017) Increasing resilience in forest tree species: a possible additional advantage for somatic embryogenesis technology. In: Proceedings 4th international conference of the IUFRO working party 2.09.02 “Development and application of vegetative propagation technologies in plantation forestry to cope with a changing climate and environment”. 19–23 Sept 2016. La Plata, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaGoogle Scholar
- Barra Jiménez A (2015) Development of somatic embryogenesis for cloning and conservation of mature holm oak trees (Quercus ilex L.). Ph.D. Thesis, Polytechnic University of Madrid, SpainGoogle Scholar
- Corredoira E, Toribio M, Vieitez AM (2014) Clonal propagation via somatic embryogenesis in Quercus spp. In: Ramawat KG, Mérillon JM, Ahuja MR (ed) Tree biotechnology (chapter 10). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 262–302. ISBN: 13: 978-1-4665-9714-3Google Scholar
- Delzon S, Urli M, Samalens J-C, Lamy J-B, Lischke H, Sin F, Zimmermann NE, Porté AJ (2013) Field evidence of colonisation by Holm oak, at the northern margin of its distribution range, during the Anthropocene period. PLoS ONE 8(11):e80443. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080443CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Jensen WA (1962) Botanical histochemistry. W.H. Freeman and Co., San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
- Jiménez JA, Alonso-Blázquez N, López-Vela D, Celestino C, Toribio M, Alegre J (2011) Influence of culture vessel characteristics and agitation rate on gaseous exchange, hydrodynamic stress, and growth of embryogenic cork oak (Quercus suber L.) cultures. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 47:578–588. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11627-011-9399-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lloyd GB, McCown BH (1980) Commercially feasible micropropagation of mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) by use of shoot tip culture. Proc Int Plant Propagators’ Soc 30:421–427Google Scholar
- Mauri PV, Manzanera, JA (2005) Protocol of somatic embryogenesis: holm oak (Quercus ilex L.). In: Jain SM, Gupta PK (eds) Protocol for somatic embryogenesis in woody plants. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 469–482. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-2985-3_37
- Martínez MT, Viéitez AM, Corredoira E (2015) Improved secondary embryo production in Quercus alba and Q. rubra by activated charcoal, silver thiosulphate and sucrose: influence of embryogenic explant used for subculture. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 121:31–546. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11240-015-0722-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar