ROLA: A New Distributed Transaction Protocol and Its Formal Analysis
 6 Citations
 6.9k Downloads
Abstract
Designers of distributed database systems face the choice between stronger consistency guarantees and better performance. A number of applications only require read atomicity (RA) and prevention of lost updates (PLU). Existing distributed database systems that meet these requirements also provide additional stronger consistency guarantees (such as causal consistency), and therefore incur lower performance. In this paper we define a new distributed transaction protocol, ROLA, that targets applications where only RA and PLU are needed. We formally model ROLA in Maude. We then perform model checking to analyze both the correctness and the performance of ROLA. For correctness, we use standard model checking to analyze ROLA’s satisfaction of RA and PLU. To analyze performance we: (a) use statistical model checking to analyze key performance properties; and (b) compare these performance results with those obtained by analyzing in Maude the wellknown protocol Walter. Our results show that ROLA outperforms Walter.
1 Introduction
Distributed transaction protocols are complex distributed systems whose design is quite challenging because: (i) validating correctness is very hard to achieve by testing alone; (ii) the high performance requirements needed in many applications are hard to measure before implementation; and (iii) there is an unavoidable tension between the degree of consistency needed for the intended applications and the high performance required of the transaction protocol for such applications: balancing well these two requirements is essential.
In this work, we present our results on how to use formal modeling and analysis as early as possible in the design process to arrive at a mature design of a new distributed transaction protocol, called ROLA, meeting specific correctness and performance requirements before such a protocol is implemented. In this way, the abovementioned design challenges (i)–(iii) can be adequately met. We also show how using this formal design approach it is relatively easy to compare ROLA with other existing transaction protocols.

read atomicity (RA): either all or none of a distributed transaction’s updates are visible to another transaction (that is, there are no “fractured reads”);

causal consistency (CC): if transaction \(T_2\) is causally dependent on transaction \(T_1\), then if another transaction sees the updates by \(T_2\), it must also see the updates of \(T_1\) (e.g., if A posts something on a social media, and C sees B’s comment on A’s post, then C must also see A’s original post);

parallel snapshot isolation (PSI): like CC but without lost updates;

and so on, all the way up to the wellknown serializability guarantees.
A key property of transaction protocols is the prevention of lost updates (PLU). The weakest consistency model in [4] satisfying both RA and PLU is PSI. However, PSI, and the wellknown protocol Walter [20] implementing PSI, also guarantee CC. Cerone et al. conjecture that a system guaranteeing RA and PLU without guaranteeing CC should be useful, but up to now we are not aware of any such protocol. The point of ROLA is exactly to fill this gap: guaranteeing RA and PLU, but not CC. Two key questions are then: (a) are there applications needing high performance where RA plus PLU provide a sufficient degree of consistency? and (b) can a new design meeting RA plus PLU outperform existing designs, like Walter, meeting PSI?
Regarding question (a), an example of a transaction that requires RA and PLU but not CC is the “becoming friends” transaction on social media. Bailis et al. [3] point out that RA is crucial for this operation: If Edinson and Neymar become friends, then Unai should not see a fractured read where Edinson is a friend of Neymar, but Neymar is not a friend of Edinson. An implementation of “becoming friends” must obviously guarantee PLU: the new friendship between Edinson and Neymar should not be lost. Finally, CC could be sacrificed for the sake of performance: Assume that Dani is a friend of Neymar. When Edinson becomes Neymar’s friend, he sees that Dani is Neymar’s friend, and therefore also becomes friend with Dani. The second friendship therefore causally depends on the first one. However, it does not seem crucial that others are aware of this causality: If Unai sees that Edinson and Dani are friends, then it is not necessary that he knows that (this happened because) Edinson and Neymar are friends.
Regarding question (b), Sect. 6 shows that ROLA clearly outperforms Walter in all performance requirements for all read/write transaction rates.
MaudeBased Formal Modeling and Analysis. In rewriting logic [16], distributed systems are specified as rewrite theories. Maude [5] is a highperformance language implementing rewriting logic and supporting various model checking analyses. To model time and performance issues, ROLA is specified in Maude as a probabilistic rewrite theory [1, 5]. ROLA’s RA and PLU requirements are then analyzed by standard model checking, where we disregard time issues. To estimate ROLA’s performance, and to compare it with that of Walter, we have also specified Walter in Maude, and subject the Maude models of both ROLA and Walter to statistical model checking analysis using the PVeStA [2] tool.
Main Contributions include: (1) the design, formal modeling, and model checking analysis of ROLA, a new transaction protocol having useful applications and meeting RA and PLU consistency properties with competitive performance; (2) a detailed performance comparison by statistical model checking between ROLA and the Walter protocol showing that ROLA outperforms Walter in all such comparisons; (3) to the best of our knowledge the first demonstration that, by a suitable use of formal methods, a completely new distributed transaction protocol can be designed and thoroughly analyzed, as well as be compared with other designs, very early on, before its implementation.
2 Preliminaries
ReadAtomic MultiPartition (RAMP) Transactions. To deal with everincreasing amounts of data, large cloud systems partition their data across multiple data centers. However, guaranteeing strong consistency properties for multipartition transactions leads to high latency. Therefore, tradeoffs that combine efficiency with weaker transactional guarantees for such transactions are needed.
In [3], Bailis et al. propose an isolation model, read atomic isolation, and Read Atomic MultiPartition (RAMP) transactions, that together provide efficient multipartition operations that guarantee read atomicity (RA).
RAMP uses multiversioning and attaches metadata to each write. Reads use this metadata to get the correct version. There are three versions of RAMP; in this paper we build on RAMPFast. To guarantee that all partitions perform a transaction successfully or that none do, RAMP performs twophase writes using the twophase commit protocol (2PC). In the prepare phase, each timestamped write is sent to its partition, which adds the write to its local database.^{1} In the commit phase, each such partition updates an index which contains the highesttimestamped committed version of each item stored at the partition.
RAMP assumes that there is no data replication: a data item is only stored at one partition. The timestamps generated by a partition P are unique identifiers but are sequentially increasing only with respect to P. A partition has access to methods get_all(I : set of items) and put_all(W : set of \(\langle {}\)item, value\(\rangle {}\) pairs).
put_all uses twophase commit for each w in W. The first phase initiates a prepare operation on the partition storing w.item, and the second phase completes the commit if each write partition agrees to commit. In the first phase, the client (i.e., the partition executing the transaction) passes a version \(v : \langle {}\)item, value, \(ts_{v}, md \rangle {}\) to the partition, where \(ts_{v}\) is a timestamp generated for the transaction and \( md \) is metadata containing all other items modified in the same transaction. Upon receiving this version v, the partition adds it to a set versions.
When a client initiates a get_all operation, then for each \(i\in I\) the client will first request the latest version vector stored on the server for i. It will then look at the metadata in the version vector returned by the server, iterating over each item in the metadata set. If it finds an item in the metadata that has a later timestamp than the \( ts _{v}\) in the returned vector, this means the value for i is out of date. The client can then request the RAconsistent version of i.
Rewriting Logic and Maude. In rewriting logic [16] a concurrent system is specified a as rewrite theory \((\varSigma , E\cup A, R )\), where \((\varSigma , E\cup A)\) is a membership equational logic theory [5], with \(\varSigma \) an algebraic signature declaring sorts, subsorts, and function symbols, E a set of conditional equations, and A a set of equational axioms. It specifies the system’s state space as an algebraic data type. \( R \) is a set of labeled conditional rewrite rules, specifying the system’s local transitions, of the form \( [l]:\, t\longrightarrow t' \;~~\mathbf if ~~\; cond \), where \( cond \) is a condition and l is a label. Such a rule specifies a transition from an instance of t to the corresponding instance of \(t'\), provided the condition holds.
defines a transition where an incoming message m, with parameters O and z, is consumed by the target object O of class C, the attribute a1 is updated to x + z, and an outgoing message m’(O’,x + z) is generated.
Statistical model checking [18, 21] is an attractive formal approach to analyzing (purely) probabilistic systems. Instead of offering a yes/no answer, it can verify a property up to a userspecified level of confidence by running MonteCarlo simulations of the system model. We then use PVeStA [2], a parallelization of the tool VeStA [19], to statistically model check purely probabilistic systems against properties expressed as QuaTEx expressions [1]. The expected value of a QuaTEx expression is iteratively evaluated w.r.t. two parameters \(\alpha \) and \(\delta \) by sampling, until we obtain a value v so that with \((1\alpha )100\%\) statistical confidence, the expected value is in the interval \([v\frac{\delta }{2}, v+\frac{\delta }{2}]\).
3 The ROLA MultiPartition Transaction Algorithm
Our new algorithm for distributed multipartition transactions, ROLA, extends RAMPFast. RAMPFast guarantees RA, but it does not guarantee PLU since it allows a write to overwrite conflicting writes: When a partition commits a write, it only compares the write’s timestamp \(t_{1}\) with the local latestcommitted timestamp \(t_{2}\), and updates the latestcommitted timestamp with \(t_{1}\) or \(t_{2}\). If the two timestamps are from two conflicting writes, then one of the writes is lost.
More specifically, ROLA adds two partitionside data structures: \( sqn \), denoting the local sequence counter, and \( seq [ ts ]\), that maps a timestamp to a local sequence number. ROLA also changes the data structure of \( versions \) in RAMP from a set to a list. ROLA then adds two methods: the coordinatorside^{2} method update(I : set of items, \( OP \) : set of operations) and the partitionside method prepare_update(v : version, \(ts_{prev}\) : timestamp) for readwrite transactions. Furthermore, ROLA changes two partitionside methods in RAMP: prepare, besides adding the version to the local store, maps its timestamp to the increased local sequence number; and commit marks versions as committed and updates an index containing the highestsequencedtimestamped committed version of each item. These two partitionside methods apply to both writeonly and readwrite transactions. ROLA invokes RAMPFast’s put_all, get_all and get methods (see [3, 14]) to deal with readonly and writeonly transactions.
ROLA starts a readwrite transaction with the update procedure. It invokes RAMPFast’s get_all method to retrieve the values of the items the client wants to update, as well as their corresponding timestamps. ROLA writes then proceed in two phases: a first round of communication places each timestamped write on its respective partition. The timestamp of each version obtained previously from the get_all call is also packaged in this prepare message. A second round of communication marks versions as committed.
At the partitionside, the partition begins the prepare_update routine by retrieving the last version in its \( versions \) list with the same item as the received version. If such a version is not found, or if the version’s timestamp \( ts _{v}\) matches the passedin timestamp \( ts _{ prev }\), then the version is deemed prepared. The partition keeps a record of this locally by incrementing a local sequence counter and mapping the received version’s timestamp \( ts _{v}\) to the current value of the sequence counter. Finally the partition returns an ack to the client. If \( ts _{ prev }\) does not match the timestamp of the last version in \( versions \) with the same item, then this \( latest \) timestamp is simply returned to the coordinator.
If the coordinator receives an ack from prepare_update, it immediately commits the version with the generated timestamp \(ts_{tx}\). If the returned value is instead a timestamp, the transaction is aborted.
4 A Probabilistic Model of ROLA
This section defines a formal executable probabilistic model of ROLA. The whole model is given at https://sites.google.com/site/fase18submission/.
As mentioned in Sect. 2, statistical model checking assumes that the system is fully probabilistic; that is, has no unquantified nondeterminism. We follow the techniques in [6] to obtain such a model. The key idea is that message delays are sampled probabilistically from dense/continuous time intervals. The probability that two messages will have the same delay is therefore 0. If events only take place when a message arrives, then two events will not happen at the same time, and therefore unquantified nondeterminism is eliminated.
We are also interested in correctness analysis of a model that captures all possible behaviors from a given initial configuration. We obtain such a nondeterministic untimed model, that can be subjected to standard model checking analysis, by just removing all message delays from our probabilistic timed model.
4.1 Probabilistic Sampling
Nodes send messages of the form Open image in new window , where \(\varDelta \) is the message delay, \( rcvr \) is the recipient, and \( msg \) is the message content. When time \(\varDelta \) has elapsed, this message becomes a ripe message Open image in new window , where T is the “current global time” (used for analysis purposes only).
4.2 Data Types, Classes, and Messages
We formalize ROLA in an objectoriented style, where the state consists of a number of partition objects, each modeling a partition of the database, and a number of messages traveling between the objects. A transaction is formalized as an object which resides inside the partition object that executes the transaction.
Data Types. A version is a timestamped version of a data item (or key) and is modeled as a 4tuple version(\( key \), \( value \), \( timestamp \), \( metadata \)). A timestamp is modeled as a pair ts(\( addr \), \( sqn \)) consisting of a partition’s identifier \( addr \) and a local sequence number \( sqn \). Metadata are modeled as a set of keys, denoting, for each key, the other keys that are written in the same transaction.
The operations attribute denotes the transaction’s operations. The readSet attribute denotes the versions read by the read operations. localVars maps the transaction’s local variables to their current values. latest stores the local view as a mapping from keys to their respective latest committed timestamps.
The datastore attribute represents the partition’s local database as a list of versions for each key stored at the partition. The attribute latestCommit maps to each key the timestamp of its last committed version. tsSqn maps each version’s timestamp to a local sequence number sqn. The attributes gotTxns, executing, committed and aborted denote the transaction(s) which are, respectively, waiting to be executed, currently executing, committed, and aborted.
The attribute votes stores the votes in the twophase commit. The remaining attributes denote the partitions from which the executing partition is awaiting votes, committed acks, firstround get replies, and secondround get replies.
Messages. The message prepare(\( txn \), \( version \), \( sender \)) sends a version from a writeonly transaction to its partition, and prepare(\( txn \), \( version \), \( ts \), \( sender \)) does the same thing for other transactions, with \( ts \) the timestamp of the version it read. The partition replies with a message preparereply(\( txn \), \( vote \), \( sender \)), where \( vote \) tells whether this partition can commit the transaction. A message commit(\( txn \), \( ts \), \( sender \)) marks the versions with timestamp \( ts \) as committed. get(\( txn \), \( key \), \( ts \), \( sender \)) asks for the highesttimestamped committed version or a missing version for key by timestamp \( ts \), and response1(\( txn \!\), \( version \), \( sender \)) and response2(\( txn \!\), \( version \!\), \( sender \)) respond to first/secondround get requests.
4.3 Formalizing ROLA’s Behaviors
This section formalizes the dynamic behaviors of ROLA using rewrite rules, referring to the corresponding lines in Algorithm 1. We only show 2 of the 15 rewrite rules in our model, and refer to the report [14] for further details.^{3}
5 Correctness Analysis of ROLA
In this section we use reachability analysis to analyze whether ROLA guarantees read atomicity and prevents lost updates.
which stores crucial information about each transaction. The \( log \) is a list of records \(\texttt {record(} tid , issueTime , finishTime , reads , writes , committed {} \texttt {)}\), with \( tid \) the transaction’s ID, \( issueTime \) its issue time, \( finishTime \) its commit/abort time, \( reads \) the versions read, \( writes \) the versions written, and \( committed \) a flag that is true if the transaction is committed.
Since ROLA is terminating if a finite number of transactions are issued, we analyze the different (correctness and performance) properties by inspecting this monitor object in the final states, when all transactions are finished.
Read Atomicity. A system guarantees RA if it prevents fractured reads, and also prevents transactions from reading uncommitted, aborted, or intermediate data [3], where a transaction \(T_{j}\) exhibits fractured reads if transaction \(T_{i}\) writes version \(x_{m}\) and \(y_{n}\), \(T_{j}\) reads version \(x_{m}\) and version \(y_{k}\), and \(k<n\) [3].
The function lu, described in [14], checks whether there are lost updates in LOG.
We have performed our analysis with 4 different initial states, with up to 8 transactions, 2 data items and 4 partitions, without finding a violation of RA or PLU. We have also model checked the causal consistency (CC) property with the same initial states, and found a counterexample showing that ROLA does not satisfy CC. (This might imply that our initial states are large enough so that violations of RA or PLU could have been found by model checking.) Each analysis command took about 30 seconds to execute on a 2.9 GHz Intel 4Core i73520M CPU with 3.7 GB memory.
6 Statistical Model Checking of ROLA and Walter
The weakest consistency model in [4] guaranteeing RA and PLU is PSI, and the main system providing PSI is Walter [20]. ROLA must therefore outperform Walter to be an attractive design. To quickly check whether ROLA does so, we have also modeled Walter—without its data replication features—in Maude (see [11] and https://sites.google.com/site/fase18submission/maudespec), and use statistical model checking with PVeStA to compare the performance of ROLA and Walter in terms of throughput and average transaction latency.
Extracting Performance Measures from Executions. PVeStA estimates the expected (average) value of an expression on a run, up to a desired statistical confidence. The key to perform statistical model checking is therefore to define a measure on runs. Using the monitor in Sect. 5 we can define a number of functions on (states with) such a monitor that extract different performance metrics from this “system execution log.”
where totalLatency computes the sum of all transaction latencies (time between the issue time and the finish time of a committed transaction).
Generating Initial States. We use an operator init to probabilistically generate initial states: init(\( rtx \), \( wtx \), \( rwtx \), \( part \), \( keys \), \( rops \), \( wops \), \( rwops \), \( distr \)) generates an initial state with \( rtx \) readonly transactions, \( wtx \) writeonly transactions, \( rwtx \) readwrite transactions, \( part \) partitions, \( keys \) data items, \( rops \) operations per readonly transaction, \( wops \) operations per writeonly transaction, \( rwops \) operations per readwrite transactions, and \( distr \) the key access distribution (the probability that an operation accesses a certain data item). To capture the fact that some data items may be accessed more frequently than others, we also use Zipfian distributions in our experiments.
Statistical Model Checking Results. We performed our experiments under different configurations, with 200 transactions, 2–4 operations per transaction, up to 200 data items and 50 partitions, with lognormal message delay distributions, and with uniform and Zipfian data item access distributions.
The plots in Fig. 1 show the throughput as a function of the percentage of readonly transactions, number of partitions, and number of keys (data items), sometimes with both uniform and Zipfian distributions. The plots show that ROLA outperforms Walter for all parameter combinations. More partitions gives ROLA higher throughput (since concurrency increases), as opposed to Walter (since Walter has to propagate transactions to more partitions to advance the vector timestamp). We only plot the results under uniform key access distribution, which are consistent with the results using Zipfian distributions.
Computing the probabilities took 6 hours (worst case) on 10 servers, each with a 64bit Intel Quad Core Xeon E5530 CPU with 12 GB memory. Each point in the plots represents the average of three statistical model checking results.
7 Related Work
Maude and PVeStA have been used to model and analyze the correctness and performance of a number of distributed data stores: the Cassandra keyvalue store [12, 15], different versions of RAMP [10, 13], and Google’s Megastore [7, 8]. In contrast to these papers, our paper uses formal methods to develop and validate an entirely new design, ROLA, for a new consistency model.
8 Conclusions
We have presented the formal design and analysis of ROLA, a distributed transaction protocol that supports a new consistency model not present in the survey by Cerone et al. [4]. Using formal modeling and both standard and statistical model checking analyses we have: (i) validated ROLA’s RA and PLU consistency requirements; and (ii) analyzed its performance requirements, showing that ROLA outperforms Walter in all performance measures.
This work has shown, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that the design and validation of a new distributed transaction protocol can be achieved relatively quickly before its implementation by the use of formal methods. Our next planned step is to implement ROLA, evaluate it experimentally, and compare the experimental results with the formal analysis ones. In previous work on existing systems such as Cassandra [9] and RAMP [3], the performance estimates obtained by formal analysis and those obtained by experimenting with the real system were basically in agreement with each other [10, 12]. This confirmed the useful predictive power of the formal analyses. Our future research will investigate the existence of a similar agreement for ROLA.
Footnotes
 1.
RAMP does not consider writewrite conflicts, so that writes are always prepared successfully (which is why RAMP does not prevent lost updates).
 2.
The coordinator, or client, is the partition executing the transaction.
 3.
We do not give variable declarations, but follow the convention that variables are written in (all) capital letters.
 4.
The variable AS’ denotes the “remaining” attributes in the object.
 5.
The additions to the original rule are written in italics.
Notes
Acknowledgments
We thank Andrea Cerone, Alexey Gotsman, Jatin Ganhotra, and Rohit Mukerji for helpful early discussions on this work, and the anonymous reviewers for useful comments. This work was supported in part by the following grants: NSF CNS 1409416, NSF CNS 1319527, AFOSR/AFRL FA87501120084, and a generous gift from Microsoft.
References
 1.Agha, G.A., Meseguer, J., Sen, K.: PMaude: rewritebased specification language for probabilistic object systems. Electr. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci. 153(2), 213–239 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
 2.AlTurki, M., Meseguer, J.: PVeStA: a parallel statistical model checking and quantitative analysis tool. In: Corradini, A., Klin, B., Cîrstea, C. (eds.) CALCO 2011. LNCS, vol. 6859, pp. 386–392. Springer, Heidelberg (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/9783642229442_28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
 3.Bailis, P., Fekete, A., Ghodsi, A., Hellerstein, J.M., Stoica, I.: Scalable atomic visibility with RAMP transactions. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 41(3), 15:1–15:45 (2016)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 4.Cerone, A., Bernardi, G., Gotsman, A.: A framework for transactional consistency models with atomic visibility. In: CONCUR. Schloss Dagstuhl  LeibnizZentrum fuer Informatik (2015)Google Scholar
 5.Clavel, M., Durán, F., Eker, S., Lincoln, P., MartíOliet, N., Meseguer, J., Talcott, C.: All About Maude  A HighPerformance Logical Framework: How to Specify, Program, and Verify Systems in Rewriting Logic. LNCS, vol. 4350. Springer, Heidelberg (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/9783540719991zbMATHGoogle Scholar
 6.Eckhardt, J., Mühlbauer, T., Meseguer, J., Wirsing, M.: Statistical model checking for composite actor systems. In: MartíOliet, N., Palomino, M. (eds.) WADT 2012. LNCS, vol. 7841, pp. 143–160. Springer, Heidelberg (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/9783642376351_9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
 7.Grov, J., Ölveczky, P.C.: Formal modeling and analysis of Google’s Megastore in RealTime Maude. In: Iida, S., Meseguer, J., Ogata, K. (eds.) Specification, Algebra, and Software. LNCS, vol. 8373, pp. 494–519. Springer, Heidelberg (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/9783642546242_25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
 8.Grov, J., Ölveczky, P.C.: Increasing consistency in multisite data stores: MegastoreCGC and its formal analysis. In: Giannakopoulou, D., Salaün, G. (eds.) SEFM 2014. LNCS, vol. 8702, pp. 159–174. Springer, Cham (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/9783319104317_12Google Scholar
 9.Hewitt, E.: Cassandra: The Definitive Guide. O’Reilly Media, Sebastopol (2010)Google Scholar
 10.Liu, S., Ölveczky, P.C., Ganhotra, J., Gupta, I., Meseguer, J.: Exploring design alternatives for RAMP transactions through statistical model checking. In: Duan, Z., Ong, L. (eds.) ICFEM 2017. LNCS, vol. 10610, pp. 298–314. Springer, Cham (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/9783319686905_18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
 11.Liu, S., Ölveczky, P.C., Wang, Q., Meseguer, J.: Formal modeling and analysis of the Walter transactional data store. In: Proceedings of WRLA 2018. LNCS. Springer (2018, to appear). https://sites.google.com/site/siliunobi/walter
 12.Liu, S., Ganhotra, J., Rahman, M., Nguyen, S., Gupta, I., Meseguer, J.: Quantitative analysis of consistency in NoSQL keyvalue stores. Leibniz Trans. Embed. Syst. 4(1), 03:1–03:26 (2017)Google Scholar
 13.Liu, S., Ölveczky, P.C., Rahman, M.R., Ganhotra, J., Gupta, I., Meseguer, J.: Formal modeling and analysis of RAMP transaction systems. In: SAC 2016. ACM (2016)Google Scholar
 14.Liu, S., Ölveczky, P.C., Santhanam, K., Wang, Q., Gupta, I., Meseguer, J.: ROLA: a new distributed transaction protocol and its formal analysis (2017). https://sites.google.com/site/fase18submission/techreport
 15.Liu, S., Rahman, M.R., Skeirik, S., Gupta, I., Meseguer, J.: Formal modeling and analysis of Cassandra in Maude. In: Merz, S., Pang, J. (eds.) ICFEM 2014. LNCS, vol. 8829, pp. 332–347. Springer, Cham (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/9783319117379_22Google Scholar
 16.Meseguer, J.: Conditional rewriting logic as a unified model of concurrency. Theor. Comput. Sci. 96(1), 73–155 (1992)CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 17.Newcombe, C., Rath, T., Zhang, F., Munteanu, B., Brooker, M., Deardeuff, M.: How Amazon Web Services uses formal methods. Commun. ACM 58(4), 66–73 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
 18.Sen, K., Viswanathan, M., Agha, G.: On statistical model checking of stochastic systems. In: Etessami, K., Rajamani, S.K. (eds.) CAV 2005. LNCS, vol. 3576, pp. 266–280. Springer, Heidelberg (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/11513988_26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
 19.Sen, K., Viswanathan, M., Agha, G.A.: VESTA: a statistical modelchecker and analyzer for probabilistic systems. In: QEST 2005. IEEE Computer Society (2005)Google Scholar
 20.Sovran, Y., Power, R., Aguilera, M.K., Li, J.: Transactional storage for georeplicated systems. In: SOSP 2011. ACM (2011)Google Scholar
 21.Younes, H.L.S., Simmons, R.G.: Statistical probabilistic model checking with a focus on timebounded properties. Inf. Comput. 204(9), 1368–1409 (2006)CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 22.Zhang, I., Sharma, N.K., Szekeres, A., Krishnamurthy, A., Ports, D.R.K.: Building consistent transactions with inconsistent replication. In: Proceedings of Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, SOSP 2015. ACM (2015)Google Scholar
Copyright information
Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this book are included in the book's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the book's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.