Reflection Through Gaming: Reinforcing Health Message Response Through Gamified Rehearsal
Reflection is generally considered an effective means of achieving behavior change. A gamified approach to promoting rehearsal and reflection in a healthy eating context was studied. The game was based on the principles of the Implicit Attitude Test: by categorizing food items under positive or negative associations the players would gain points according to how fast they categorized foods under positive or negative associations. Game scores constituted feedback for reflection, and repeated playing constituted rehearsal of target responses. Experiment participants (N = 58) played the game over a five-day period. Constructs of Rehearsal (REH), self-reported questionnaire responses on Reflection (REFL) and Perceived Persuasiveness (PEPE), and self-reported Perceived Health Behavior Change (PHBC) were analyzed using PLS-SEM. The results show that PLAY moderates the REFL-PEPE relationship, and there are also significant relationships between REH and PEPE, PEPE and PHBC, and REFL and PHBC.
KeywordsPersuasive technology Behavior change Gamification Self-reflection Perceived Persuasiveness PSD PLS-SEM
Harri Oinas-Kukkonen wishes to thank the Finnish Cultural Foundation for supporting this research.
- 2.Li, I., Dey, A.K., Forlizzi, J.: Understanding my data, myself: supporting selfreflection with ubicomp technologies. In: Proceedings of UbiComp 2011 International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing. ACM, New York (2011)Google Scholar
- 9.Oinas-Kukkonen, H., Harjumaa, M.: Persuasive systems design: key issues, process model, and system features. Commun. Assoc. Inf. Syst. 24, 28 (2009)Google Scholar
- 10.Hamari, J., Koivisto, J.: Social motivations to use gamification: an empirical study of gamifying exercise. In: Proceedings of ECIS 2013 European Conference on Information Systems (2013)Google Scholar
- 11.Huotari, K., Hamari, J.: Defining gamification – a service marketing perspective. In: Proceedings of MindTrek 2012, 3–5 October 2012Google Scholar
- 12.Werbach, K., Hunter, D.: For the Win: How Game Thinking can Revolutionize Your Business. Wharton Digital Press, Philadelphia (2012)Google Scholar
- 19.Maison, D., Greenwald, A.G., Bruin, R.: The implicit association test as a measure of implicit consumer attitudes. Pol. Psycholog. Bull. 32, 1–9 (2001)Google Scholar
- 24.Lehto, T., Oinas-Kukkonen, H., Drozd, F.: Factors affecting perceived persuasiveness of a behavior change support system. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2012) (2012)Google Scholar
- 33.Nunally, J.C., Bernstein, I.: Psychometric Theory. McGraw-Hill, New York (1994)Google Scholar
- 34.Fogg, B.J.: Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (2003)Google Scholar