Assessment and Evaluation of Learning via Simulation

  • Peter Radonyi
  • Elyssebeth Leigh
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10711)


In some disciplines, simulation is central to all aspects of training and learning; it is used intermittently in others, and almost violently excluded from others – at least apparently. An ongoing problem faced by simulation is the low level of awareness and understanding about what the term, what means in different contexts, and how it assists planning, learning and change in human society. This work is the beginning of an exploration of simulation as a learning, training and assessment tool that is both inter-disciplinary and cross-disciplinary. As we are from very different disciplines, a shared passion for simulation was our starting point. This paper draws on extracts from our correspondence to track the evolution of our thinking, and ranges widely rather than deeply, across ideas and concepts. It uses our understanding of the Complex Domain in the Cynefin Domains of Knowledge (Hasan and Kazlauskas 2014), emphasizing that ‘probes’ into options and diverse sources of knowledge are essential to learning how to operate in, amend, or add to, current contexts which have no known prior answer.


Training and learning Definitional quandaries Complex domains of knowledge Inter/cross-disciplinary study 


  1. Bavas, J.: ABC News. Queensland pilot wins right to captain airliner despite poor colour vision. ABC News, 24 February 2015.
  2. Bowers, C.A., Jentsch, F.: Use of commercial, off-the-shelf, simulations for team research. In: Advances in Human Performance and Cognitive Engineering Research, vol. 1, pp. 293–317. Emerald Group Publishing Limited (2001).
  3. Brydges, R., Backstein, D., Dubrowski, A.: Application of motor learning principles to complex surgical tasks: searching for the optimal practice schedule. Heldref Publ. 39(1), 40–48 (2007)Google Scholar
  4. Cairnes, M.: Avoid the instinct of the reptilian brain’ in Civil Engineers Australia. Civil Engineers Australia, November 2014Google Scholar
  5. Card, O.S.: Enders Game. Saint Martin’s Press, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  6. Carson, A., Maria, Y.: Simulation optimization: methods and applications. In: Proceedings of the 1997 Winter Simulation Conference, pp. 118–126 (1997)Google Scholar
  7. Champagne, B.J.: Effective teaching and feedback strategies in the OR and beyond. Clin. Colon. Rectal. Surg. 26(4), 244–249 (2013). Scholar
  8. Chin, J., Dukes, R., Gamson, W.: Assessment in simulation and gaming: a review of the last 40 years. Simul. Gaming 40(4), 553–568 (2009)Google Scholar
  9. Christopher, E., Smith, L.: Leadership Training Through Gaming. Sage, Newbury Park (1987)Google Scholar
  10. Dahlstrom, N., Dekker, S., van Winsen, R., Nyce, J.: Fidelity and validity of simulator training. Theor. Issues Ergon. Sci. 10(4), 305–314 (2009). Scholar
  11. Dillard, A.E.: Simulators for human-factors operational evaluation and training programs (Foundation for V&V Workshop), p. 88. John Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (2002)Google Scholar
  12. Doonga, N.: The development and implementation of business simulations in higher education in the United Kingdom. Robert Gordon University.
  13. Eidt, J.F.: The aviation model of vascular surgery education. J. Vasc. Surg. 55(6), 1801–1809 (2012). Scholar
  14. Leigh, E., Spindler, L.: Simulations and games as chaordic learning contexts. Simul. Gaming 35(1), 53–69 (2004). Scholar
  15. Gardner, R., Raemer, D.B.: Simulation in obstetrics and gynecology. Patient Saf. Obstet. Gynecol. Improv. Outcomes Reducing Risks 35(1), 97–127 (2008). Scholar
  16. Gilbert, D.T., Wilson, T.D.: Prospection: experiencing the future. Science 317(5843), 1351–1354 (2007). Scholar
  17. Gilbert, D.T., Wilson, T.D.: Why the brain talks to itself: sources of error in emotional prediction. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. 364(1512), 1335–1341 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldstein, M., Li, P.: Male infertility, microsurgery, and men’s health. Transl. Androl. Urol. 3(1), 113–124 (2015)Google Scholar
  19. Hasan, H., Kazlauskas, A.: The Cynefin framework: putting complexity into perspective the Cynefin framework: putting complexity into perspective. University Wollongong, Research Online, pp. 55–57 (2014)Google Scholar
  20. Heisenberg, W.: The physical principles of the quantum theory. Springer (1930).
  21. Heisenberg, W.: Physics and Philosophy the Revolution in Modern Science. The Revolution in Modern Science. Introduced by Paul Daives (1962). (Reprint Penguin. First published in the USA by Harper & Row Publishers, Inc., New York 1962). Reprinted in Penguin Classics 2000.,Werner/Heisenberg,%20Werner%20-%20Physics%20and%20philosophy.pdf
  22. Johansson, B.: Application of pedagogical perspectives in the teaching and training of new cataract surgeons—a literature-based essay. Open J. Ophthalmol. 3(3), 61–67 (2013). Scholar
  23. Jones, M.T., Lombard, M., Jasak, J.: (Tele) Presence and simulation: questions of epistemology, religion, morality, and mortality. Psychol. J. 9(3), 193–222 (2011)Google Scholar
  24. Kellert, S.H.: In the Wake of Chaos: Unpredictable Order in Dynamical Systems. University of Chicago Press (1993)Google Scholar
  25. Khan, K., Pattison, T., Sherwood, M.: Simulation in medical education. Med. Teach. 33(1), 1–3 (2011). Scholar
  26. Kuhn, T.S.: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd edn, enlarged. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1970).
  27. Lee, A.T.: Air Traffic Control Communications Simulation: Frequency Chatter and Aircrew Behavior (No. BRI-TR-140903), p. 11. Beta Research Inc. (2003).
  28. Levine, A., DeMaria Jr., S., Schwartz, A., Sim, A.: The Comprehensive Textbook of Healthcare Simulation, 1st edn. Springer, Heidelberg (2013). Scholar
  29. Katoue, M.G., Iblagh, N., Somerville, S., Ker, J.: Introducing simulation-based education to healthcare professionals: exploring the challenge of integrating theory into educational practice. Scott. Med. J. 60(4), 176–181 (2015). Scholar
  30. Meyer, N.: Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan. Paramount Pictures, Los Angeles (1982)Google Scholar
  31. Milkins, L., Moore, C., Spiteri, J.: Simulation based education. Professional entry student education and training. Networks, Simulation and Supervision (HETI) (2014).
  32. MITRE: MITRE Systems Engineering Guide (2014)Google Scholar
  33. Northam, G.: Simulation fidelity–getting in touch with reality. In: Proceedings of SimTecT 2000 (2000)Google Scholar
  34. Orme, C.: Professional military education and simulation. In: Presented at the Simtech 2012 (2012).
  35. Page, R.: Brief history of flight simulation. In: Simtec, pp. 1–11 (2000)Google Scholar
  36. Preece, R.: The current role of simulation in urological training. Cent. Eur. J. Urol. 68(2), 207–211 (2015). Scholar
  37. Rabinowitz, M.: Examination of wave-particle duality via two-slit interference (1994).
  38. Robinson, W.P., Doucet, D.R., Simons, J.P., Wyman, A., Aiello, F.A., Arous, E., Messina, L.M.: An intensive vascular surgical skills and simulation course for vascular trainees improves procedural knowledge and self-rated procedural competence. J. Vasc. Surg. 65(3), 907–915 (2015). Scholar
  39. Sennersten, C.: Model-Based Simulation Training Supporting Military Operational Processes. Blekinge Institute of Technology. School of Technology, Sweden (2010)Google Scholar
  40. Shaharan, S., Neary, P.: Evaluation of surgical training in the era of simulation. World J. Gastroint. Endosc. 6(9), 437–447 (2014). Scholar
  41. Shallit, J.: Science, pseudoscience, and the three stages of truth, 9 (2005).
  42. Siewiorek, A.: Playing to Learn: Business Simulation Games as Leadership Learning Environments. Turun Yliopisto University of Turku (2012).
  43. Sullenberger, C., Zaslow, J.: Highest Duty: My Search for What Really Matters. HarperCollins, New York (2009)Google Scholar
  44. Thomas, R.: What are simulations? The JeLSIM Perspective (Java eLearning Simulation) (2004)Google Scholar
  45. Wolfe, J., Kuchera, C., Schuetz, J.: The Fractal Foundation (2003).
  46. Zupanc, C.M., Burgess-Limerick, R., Hill, A., Riek, S., Wallis, G.M., Plooy, A.M., Hewett, D.G.: A competency framework for colonoscopy training derived from cognitive task analysis techniques and expert review. BMC Med. Educ. 15, 216 (2015). Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jacobs EngineeringCanberraAustralia
  2. 2.FutureSearchSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations