• Ian Baker


Iron, a lustrous silvery, malleable, very ductile metal, exists in three different crystal structures or allotropes: up to 912 °C it is body centered cubic (b.c.c.); from 912-1394 °C it is face centered cubic (f.c.c.); and from 1394 °C up to the melting point of 1538 °C it is again b.c.c., see Fig. 18.1. Iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust at 6.3% and the second most abundant metal after aluminum at 8.1%. In addition, the Earth’s inner and outer cores, which constitute 35% of the mass of the planet, are composed of iron and nickel.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian Baker
    • 1
  1. 1.Thayer School of EngineeringDartmouth CollegeHanoverUSA

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