The Military Contract Service Model of the Portuguese Armed Forces. Critical Review and Intervention Measures

  • Lúcio Agostinho Barreiros Santos
  • Maria Manuela Martins Saraiva Sarmento Coelho
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 94)

Abstract

This article relies on documentary and empirical data to carry out a critical analysis of the military contract model of the Portuguese Armed Forces and the incentive scheme that supports them. Theoretical and practical shortcomings, as well as measures to mitigate its negative effects are identified when analyzing the dimensions – recruitment, retention, and reintegration – and how they affect the citizens who enlist on a temporary basis. This research intersects three perspectives of analysis: macro-level (external context), meso-level (organizational context), and micro-level (individual perspective). The study used a qualitative research strategy (Bryman, 2012; Creswell, 2013) and a case study research design (Yin, 2014). The results show that there are shortcomings in the military’s ability to recruit and retain contract military personnel, which indicates that the model should be revised and the incentive scheme that supports it should be updated.

Keywords

Contract service model Incentive scheme Recruitment Retention Reintegration 

References

  1. 1.
    Law No. 174/99 of 21 September: Approves the Military Service Law. Assembly of the Republic. Diário da República, Lisbon (1999). https://dre.pt/application/dir/pdf1sdip/1999/09/221A00/65416550.pdf
  2. 2.
    Decree-Law No. 289/2000 of 14 November: Approves the Regulation of the Military Service Law. Portuguese Government. Diário da República, Lisbon (2000). https://dre.pt/application/dir/pdf1sdip/2000/11/263A00/64256438.pdf
  3. 3.
    Decree-Law No. 320-A/2000 of 15 December: Approves the Regulation of Incentives to Service in CS (amended by Decree-Law No. 118/2004 of 21 May and by Decree-Law No. 320/2007 of 27 September). Portuguese Government. Diário da República, Lisbon (2000). https://dre.pt/application/dir/pdf1sdip/2000/12/288A01/00020011.pdf
  4. 4.
    Santos, L.: Reflections Arising from Military Service Under Contract in the Portuguese Armed Forces: Functional and Social and Citizenship Perspectives. Revista de Ciências Militares, III(1), 331–362, May 2015. https://cidium.ium.pt/docs/artigos/Artigo_123.pdf
  5. 5.
    Bryman, A.: Social Research Methods, 4th edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Creswell, J.W.: Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches, 3rd edn. Sage Publications, Los Angeles (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guerra, I.C.: Pesquisa Qualitativa e Análise de Conteúdo: Sentidos e Formas de Uso. Principia, Parede (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yin, K.R.: Case Study Research – Design and Methods, 5th edn. Sage Publications, Los Angeles (2014)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Decree-Law No. 90/2015 of 29 May: Approves the Statute of the Armed Forces Military Personnel. Portuguese Government. Diário da República, Lisbon (2015). http://www.emgfa.pt/documents/cqw3zjnhvg4s.pdf
  10. 10.
    Decision No. 8474/2016 of 30 June: Determines the measures to be implemented in the Professionalization of Military Service, to be undertaken by the National Defense Day, Planning and Execution Committee, the Military Recruitment Planning and Coordination Committee, and the Professional Reintegration Planning and Coordination Committee. Diário da República No. 124/2016, Series II, Lisbon (2016). https://dre.pt/web/guest/home/-/dre/74813568/details/maximized?serie=II&day=2016-06-30&date=2016-06-01&dreId=74813550
  11. 11.
    Wash, V.: Models and theory. In: Durlauf, S., Blume L. (eds.) The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. 2nd edn., Palgrave-Macmillan (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Matsuyama, K.: Structural change. In: Durlauf, S., Blume, L. (eds.) The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. 2nd edn., Palgrave-Macmillan (2008)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Caetano, V., Vala, J. (org.): Gestão de Recursos Humanos: Contextos, Processos e Técnicas. 3rd edn. Editora RH, Lisboa (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    RTO/NATO: Recruiting and Retention of Military Personnel: Technical Report of RTO (Research Task Group), HFM-107. NATO Research & Technology Organization, October 2007. https://www.nato.int/issues/women_nato/Recruiting%20&%20Retention%20of%20Mil%20Personnel.pdf
  15. 15.
    Defillippi, R.J., Arthur, M.B.: The boundaryless career: a competency-based prospective. J. Organ. Behav. 15(4), 307–324 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hall, D.T.: Careers in Organizations. Goodyear, California (1976)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dutra, J.S. (org.): Gestão de Carreiras na Empresa Contemporânea. Atlas, São Paulo (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Van Maanen, J.: Organizational Careers: Some New Perspectives. Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1977)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Martins, H.: Gestão de Carreiras na Era do Conhecimento. Qualitymark, Rio de Janeiro (2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Arthur, M.: The New Careers: Individual Action and Economic Change. Sage, London (1996)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Currie, G., Tempest, S., Starkey, K.: New careers for old? Organizational and individual responses to changing boundaries. Int. J. Hum. Resour. Manag. 17, 755–774 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dutra, J.: Administração de Carreiras – Uma Proposta para Repensar a Gestão de Pessoas. Atlas, São Paulo (2012)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hall, D.: Careers In and Out of Organization. Sage, London (2002)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Arthur, M., Rousseau, D.: The Boundaryless Career: A New Employment Principle for a New Organizational Era. Oxford University Press, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Peiperl, M., Arthur, M., Goffee, R., Morris, T. (eds.): Career Frontiers: New Conception of Working Lives. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2000)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schein, E.: Career Anchors: Discovering Your Real Values. Pfeiffer & Company, University Associates, San Diego (1990)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rousseau, D.: Psychological Contracts in Organizations: Understanding Written and Unwritten Agreements. Sage, Thousand Oaks (1995)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Moskos, C.: From institution to occupation: trends in military organizations. Armed Forces Soc. 4, 41–50 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Saunders, M., Lewis, P., Thornhill, A.: Research Methods for Business Students, 5th edn. Pearson Education Limited, Essex (2009)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Denzin, N., Lincoln, Y. (eds.): Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials, 4th edn. Sage Publications, Los Angeles (2013)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bardin, L.: L’Analyse de Contenu. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris (1977)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lúcio Agostinho Barreiros Santos
    • 1
  • Maria Manuela Martins Saraiva Sarmento Coelho
    • 2
  1. 1.IUM Research and Development Center (CIDIUM)Military University Institute (IUM)LisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Research and Development Center of the Military Academy (CINAMIL)Military Academy (AM)LisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations