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Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials: Relevance in Design and Manufacturing

Part of the Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology book series (MFMT)


The chapter provides an introduction to mechanical engineering, covering fundamental concepts of mechanical properties of materials and their use in the design and manufacturing. It first explains the notion of mechanical properties of materials and then elaborates on the proper definition of most relevant properties as well as materials testing to obtain these properties. The role of mechanical properties at the design stage in form of the design criterion is explained. The use of material properties to assess equivalent stress and strain in complex loading conditions is revealed. At the manufacturing stage, the notion of additive (material is added to the workpiece), neutral (the volume of the workpiece is preserved), and substantive (the volume of the workpiece is reduced) processes is introduced. The relevant properties of materials in the neutral (forming) and substantive (cutting) processes are considered.


  • Engineering materials
  • Basic mechanical properties
  • Design and manufacturing
  • Complex state of stress
  • Failure criteria

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Correspondence to Viktor P. Astakhov .

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A stress–strain diagram

A diagram in which corresponding values of stress and strain are plotted against each other. Values of stress are usually plotted as ordinates (vertically) and values of strain as abscissas (horizontally).


Physical separation of a material into two or more parts.


Ability of a material to deform plastically before fracturing.

Damage curve

Curve is obtained from the flow curve by adding the work material degradation and fracture regions.

Factor of safety (FoS) also known as safety factor (SF)

A term describing the structural capacity of a part or system beyond the expected loads or actual loads.

Flow curve

A curve in the true stress-true strain coordinate describing the material behavior up to fracture.

Forming processes

Manufacturing processes done through three-dimensional or plastic modification of a shape while retaining its mass and material cohesion

Fracture locus

An experimentally obtained curve representing the dependence of the strain at fracture on the state of stress.


The resistance of a material to indenter penetration. Measured in MPa or GPa.

Metal cutting (machining)

Purposeful fracture of a thin layer on the workpiece by a wedge-shaped cutting tool occurring under a combined stress in the deformation zone in cyclic manner.

Modulus of elasticity

The slope of elastic segment of a stress–strain diagram. It is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material. Measured in GPa.

Poisson’s ratio

The ratio of the magnitude of the lateral contraction strain to the axial strain. Dimensionless.


The strain energy stored by body up to elastic limit. Measured in J/m3.

Shear modulus

The slope of the elastic segment of a shear stress–strain diagram. Measured in GPa.

Shearing operations

Cutting operations the deformation and then separation of a material substance in which parallel surfaces are made to slide past one another.

Stress triaxiality state parameter

The ratio of the mean and equivalent stress. Used to characterize the state of stress.

True stress and true strain

Stress and strain determined based on the actual cross-sectional area of the specimen.


The energy need to fracture of a unit volume of a material. Measured in J/m3.

von Mises stress criterion

States that yielding of a material occurs when the equivalent stress reaches the yield strength of the material in simple tension.

Ultimate shear strength

The shear maximum stress developed by the material before fracture based on the original cross-sectional area. Measured in MPa.

Ultimate tensile strength (UTS)

The maximum normal stress developed by the material before fracture based on the original cross-sectional area. Measured in MPa.

Yield shear strength

The shear stress at which a material exhibits a deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain. Measured in MPa.

Yield tensile strength

The normal stress at which a material exhibits a deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain, i.e., the occurrence permanents plastic strain is the case. Measured in MPa

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Astakhov, V.P. (2018). Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials: Relevance in Design and Manufacturing. In: Davim, J. (eds) Introduction to Mechanical Engineering. Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology. Springer, Cham.

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