Individual Differences MDS Model

  • Cody S. Ding


Discuss the fundamental concepts of individual differences MDS analysis. An example of real data is provided to illustrate interpretation of the results. Estimation of the model is presented but readers can skip this part. Potential use of the model is discussed.


Individual differences MDS model INDISCAL Group space Individual dimensional weight 


  1. Carroll, J. D., & Chang, J. J. (1970). Analysis of individual differences in multidimensional scaling via an N-way generalization of “Eckart-young” decomposition. Psychometrika, 35, 238–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Davison, M. L. (1983). Multidimensional scaling. New York: Wiley.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Horan, C. B. (1969). Multidimensional scaling: Combining observations when individuals have different perceptual structure. Psychometrika, 34, 139–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cody S. Ding
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Education Science and Professional ProgramUniversity of Missouri-St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Center for NeurodynamicsUniversity of Missouri-St. LouisSt. LouisUSA

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