Fundamental concepts of MDS models are discussed. Since MDS includes a family of different models and various terms are used to describe these models as well as their corresponding elements, I explain these models and their associated terms using more understandable language.


MDS models Vector representation Metric model Non-metric model Preference model Unfolding model Individual differences model 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cody S. Ding
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Education Science and Professional ProgramUniversity of Missouri-St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Center for NeurodynamicsUniversity of Missouri-St. LouisSt. LouisUSA

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