Mean-Level Change vs. Pattern Change

  • Cody S. Ding


Illustrate the similarities and differences between MDS growth analysis and growth mixture modeling approach using structural equation modeling. The key point is that MDS focuses on pattern with mean-level removed, while growth mixture modeling focuses on mean-level. Although the results from both approaches may be the same at times, two approaches may provide different aspects of growth or change. An example is provided to demonstrate these two approaches.


Growth profile analysis Mean-level change Pattern change 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cody S. Ding
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Education Science and Professional ProgramUniversity of Missouri-St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Center for NeurodynamicsUniversity of Missouri-St. LouisSt. LouisUSA

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