O’Brien offers an overview of the presidency literature with a focus on the ideas of the permanent campaign and going public. She also relies upon Neustadt’s argument that presidents need persuasion power to survive. O’Brien contends many administrations generally work to reinforce already existing support through some may try to outreach to new areas. Some presidents will go into smaller areas throughout the country, but most presidents tend to focus on large places. She discusses how market branding increasing applies to how politics interacts with the general public. Presidents and parties increasingly target populations as if they are customers trying to decide a product to purchase. Politicians aim to make voters brand loyal by encouraging and then exploiting cognitive habit loops, so they discount other options.