Advertisement

East European Interactions: Russian Foreign Policy as Structural Constraint

  • Theodor Tudoroiu
Chapter

Abstract

Chapter 3 analyzes in what way the need for domestic legitimacy of President Putin’s authoritarian regime and the deep impact of neoclassical geopolitics on the development of Russia’s identity as an international actor have turned Moscow into an aggressive revisionist power that seriously endangers the stability of the East European regional security complex through the use of effective instruments that range from cyberwarfare and energy blackmail to hybrid wars and frozen conflicts. The Kremlin’s actions have already led to the ‘militarization of thinking’ in Eastern Europe and increasingly threaten European Union’s Kantian geopolitical vision. Russian aggressiveness has come to represent a structural constraint that will impact considerably the future trajectory of the entire regional security complex.

Keywords

Russia Authoritarianism Neoclassical geopolitics Eurasianism The Eurasian union Russia’s greater Europe 

References

  1. Agnew, John. 2017. Out of the Wreckage of the Cold War. In John Agnew, Jeffrey T Checkel, Daniel Deudney, Jennifer Mitzen, and Stefano Guzzini. Symposium on Stefano Guzzini’s (ed.) The Return of Geopolitics in Europe? Social Mechanisms and Foreign Policy Identity Crises. Cooperation and Conflict 52 (3): 404–406.Google Scholar
  2. Ambrosio, Thomas. 2009. Authoritarian Backlash. Russian Resistance to Democratization in the Former Soviet Union. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  3. Bassin, Mark, Sergey Glebov, and Marlene Laruelle (eds.). 2015. Between Europe & Asia. The Origins, Theories, and Legacies of Russian Eurasianism. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  4. BBC. June 23, 2015. US Announces New Tank and Artillery Deployment in Europe. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-33238004.
  5. BBC. September 5, 2013. Armenia Rift Over Trade Deal Fuels EU-Russia Tension. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-23975951.
  6. Berryman, John. 2012. Geopolitics and Russian Foreign Policy. Special Issue: Russia in the New International Order, International Politics Suppl. 49 (4): 530–544.Google Scholar
  7. Blank, Stephen. 2008. Russia and the Black Sea’s Frozen Conflicts in Strategic Perspective. Mediterranean Quarterly 19 (3): 23–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Braun, Aurel. 2012. Resetting Russian-Eastern European Relations for the 21st Century. Communist and Post-Communist Studies 45 (3–4): 389–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bugajski, Janusz. 2007. The Eastern Dimension of America’s New European Allies. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute.Google Scholar
  10. Bugajski, Janusz. 2010. Russia’s Pragmatic Reimperialization. Caucasian Review of International Affairs 4 (1): 3–19.Google Scholar
  11. Bugajski, Janusz. 2014. Russia’s Transformation. The Journal of International Security Affairs 27: 5–11.Google Scholar
  12. Bugajski, Janusz. 2016. Only NATO Can Defend Europe. European View 15 (1): 27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buzan, Barry, and Ole Wæver. 2003. Regions and Powers. The Structure of International Security. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cameron, David R., and Mitchell A. Orenstein. 2012. Post-Soviet Authoritarianism: The Influence of Russia in Its “Near Abroad”. Post-Soviet Affairs 28 (1): 1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carr, E.H. 1939. The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 1919–1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  16. Center for Strategic and International Studies. 2016. The Kremlin Playbook: Understanding Russian Influence in Central and Eastern Europe, October. https://www.csis.org/analysis/kremlin-playbook.
  17. Chaban, Natalia, Ole Elgström, and Olga Gulyaeva. 2017. Russian Images of the European Union: Before and after Maidan. Foreign Policy Analysis 13 (2): 480–499.Google Scholar
  18. Conley, Heather A., James Mina, Ruslan Stefanov, and Martin Vladimirov. 2016. The Kremlin Playbook: Understanding Russian Influence in Central and Eastern Europe, October. Center for Strategic and International Studies. https://www.csis.org/analysis/kremlin-playbook.
  19. Debardeleben, Joan. 2012. Applying Constructivism to Understanding EU-Russian Relations. International Politics 49 (4): 418–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deudney, David, and G. John Ikenberry. 2009. The Unraveling of the Cold War Settlement. Survival 51 (6): 39–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duke, Simon. 2017. Europe as a Stronger Global Actor Challenges and Strategic Responses. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Euractiv. 2013. EU Seeks “Time for Reflection” After Vilnius Summit Failure, November 29. http://www.euractiv.com/global-europe/vilnius-summit-time-reflection-news-532048.
  23. European Commission. 2013. Factsheet Eastern Partnership Summit Vilnius, MEMO/13/1057, November 26. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-13-1057_en.htm.
  24. Freedom House. 2017. Nations in Transit 2017. The False Promise of Populism. https://freedomhouse.org/report/nations-transit/nations-transit-2017.
  25. Freire, Maria Raquel. 2016. Russian Foreign Policy and the Shaping of a “Greater Europe”. In Security in Shared Neighbourhoods. Foreign Policy of Russia, Turkey and the EU, ed. Rémi Piet, and Licínia Simão, 35–52. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  26. Freudenstein, Roland. 2014. Facing up to the Bear: Confronting Putin’s Russia. European View 13 (2): 225–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grabbe, Heather. 2005. The EU’s Transformative Power Europeanization Through Conditionality in Central and Eastern Europe. Houndmills and Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  28. Greene, Samuel A. 2016. Future Approaches to the US. In Russian Futures: Horizon 2025, ed. Hiski Haukkala and Nicu Popescu, Report No. 26, March, 41–46. Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies. https://www.iss.europa.eu/content/russian-futures-horizon-2025.
  29. Grygiel, Jakub. 2015. The Geopolitics of Europe: Europe’s Illusions and Delusions. Orbis 59 (4): 505–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guzzini, Stefano (ed.). 2012. The Return of Geopolitics in Europe? Social Mechanisms and Foreign Policy Identity Crises. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Haaland Matlary, Janne, and Tormod Heier (eds.). 2016. Ukraine and Beyond. Russia’s Strategic Security Challenge to Europe. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  32. Haukkala, Hiski, and Nicu Popescu. 2016. The Future of EU-Russia Relations. In Russian Futures: Horizon 2025, ed. Hiski Haukkala and Nicu Popescu, Report No. 26, March, 69–74. Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies. https://www.iss.europa.eu/content/russian-futures-horizon-2025.
  33. Kanet, Roger E., and Matthew Sussex. 2015. Introduction: Russia, Eurasia and the New Geopolitics of Energy. In Russia, Eurasia and the New Geopolitics of Energy. Confrontation and Consolidation, ed. Roger E. Kanet, and Matthew Sussex, 1–15. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  34. Karlsen, Geir Hågen. 2016. Tools of Russian Influence: Information and Propaganda. In Ukraine and Beyond. Russia’s Strategic Security Challenge to Europe, ed. Janne Haaland Matlary and Tormod Heier, 181–208. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  35. Kearns, Gerry. 2009. Geopolitics and Empire. The Legacy of Halford Mackinder. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kennan, George. 1946. Photocopy of Long Telegram. February 22, Harry S. Truman Administration File, Elsey Papers, Truman Library, https://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/coldwar/documents/pdf/6-6.pdf.
  37. Kennan, George F. 1997. A Fateful Error. New York Times, February 5. http://www.netwargamingitalia.net/forum/resources/george-f-kennan-a-fateful-error.35/.
  38. Konoplyov, Sergei, and Igor Delanoë. 2014. Continuities and Ruptures: Tracking the US Interests in the Black Sea Area in the Context of the ‘Pivot to Asia’. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies 16 (3): 356–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kuchins, Andrew C. 2015. Mismatched Partners: US-Russia Relations after the Cold War. In Russia’s Foreign Policy Ideas, Domestic Politics and External Relations, ed. David Cadier, and Margot Light, 117–137. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  40. Lane, David, and Vsevolod Samokhvalov (eds.). 2015. The Eurasian Project and Europe. Regional Discontinuities and Geopolitics. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  41. Lanoszka, Alexander. 2016. Russian Hybrid Warfare and Extended Deterrence in Eastern Europe. International Affairs 92 (1): 175–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Larrabee, F. Stephen. 2010. Russia, Ukraine, and Central Europe: The Return of Geopolitics. Journal of International Affairs 63 (2): 33–52.Google Scholar
  43. Larson, Deborah Welch, and Alexei Shevchenko. 2014. Russia Says No: Power, Status, and Emotions in Foreign Policy. Communist and Post-Communist Studies 47 (3–4): 269–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Leichtova, Magda. 2014. Misunderstanding Russia Russian Foreign Policy and the West. Farnham and Surrey: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  45. Leonard, Mark, and Nicu Popescu. 2007. A Power Audit of EU-Russia Relations. The European Council on Foreign Relations, November 7. http://ecfr.eu/page/-/ECFR-02_A_POWER_AUDIT_OF_EU-RUSSIA_RELATIONS.pdf.
  46. Lindley-French, Julian. 2016. Could Britain Respond Strategically to Russian Aggression? In Ukraine and Beyond. Russia’s Strategic Security Challenge to Europe, ed. Janne Haaland Matlary and Tormod Heier, 101–127. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  47. Lo, Bobo. 2015. Russia and the New World Disorder. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  48. Lomagin, Nikita. 2010. Medvedev’s “Fourteen Points”: Russia’s Proposal for a New European Security Architecture. In Russian Foreign Policy in the 21st Century, ed. Roger E. Kanet, 181–203. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  49. Mäkinen, Sirke. 2014. Geopolitics Teaching and Worldviews: Making the Future Generation in Russia. Geopolitics 19 (1): 86–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Megoran, Nick. 2010. Neoclassical Geopolitics. Political Geography 29: 187–189.Google Scholar
  51. McKew, Molly K., and Gregory A. Maniatis. 2014. Playing by Putin’s Tactics. The Washington Post, March 9. http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/playing-by-putins-tactics/2014/03/09/b5233b90-a558-11e3-a5fa-55f0c77bf39c_story.html.
  52. Mead, Walter Russell. 2014. The Return of Geopolitics: The Revenge of the Revisionist Powers. Foreign Affairs 93 (3). https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/china/2014-04-17/return-geopolitics.
  53. Mearsheimer, John. 2010. The Gathering Storm: China’s Challenge to US Power in Asia. Chinese Journal of International Politics 3 (4): 381–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mearsheimer, John J. 2014. Why the Ukraine Crisis is the West’s Fault. The Liberal Delusions that Provoked Putin. Foreign Affairs, September/October.Google Scholar
  55. Missiroli, Antonio, Gerald Stang, Jan Joel Andersson, Cristina Barrios, Hugo Brady, Florence Gaub, Eva Gross, Patryk Pawlak, Eva Pejsova, Nicu Popescu, and Thierry Tardy. 2014. A Changing Global Environment. Chaillot Paper 133, December. Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies.Google Scholar
  56. Morozov, Viatcheslav. 2015. Russia’s Postcolonial Identity. A Subaltern Empire in a Eurocentric World. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  57. Morozova, Natalia. 2009. Geopolitics, Eurasianism and Russian Foreign Policy Under Putin. Geopolitics 14 (4): 667–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Oliver, Tim, and Michael John Williams. 2016. Special Relationships in Flux: Brexit and the Future of the US-EU and US-UK Relationships. International Affairs 92 (3): 547–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Orenstein, Mitchell A. 2015. Geopolitics of a Divided Europe. East European Politics and Societies and Cultures 29 (2): 531–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Popescu, Nicu. 2005. The EU in Moldova—Settling Conflicts in the Neighbourhood. European Union Institute for Security Studies Occasional Paper No. 60.Google Scholar
  61. Popescu, Nicu. 2014. Eurasian Union: The Real, the Imaginary and the Likely. Chaillot Paper 132, September. Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies.Google Scholar
  62. Puddington, Arch. 2017. Breaking Down Democracy: Goals, Strategies, and Methods of Modern Authoritarians. Freedom House, June. https://freedomhouse.org/report/special-reports/breaking-down-democracy-goals-strategies-and-methods-modern-authoritarians.
  63. Roberts, Kari. 2017. Understanding Putin: The Politics of Identity and Geopolitics in Russian Foreign Policy Discourse. International Journal 72 (1): 28–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sakwa, Richard. 2010. Russia and Turkey: Rethinking Europe to Contest Outsider Status. Russie Nei Visions, 51. Paris: Ifri.Google Scholar
  65. Sakwa, Richard. 2015a. Eurasian Integration: A Project for the 21st Century? In The Eurasian Project and Europe. Regional Discontinuities and Geopolitics, ed. David Lane, and Vsevolod Samokhvalov, 53–71. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  66. Sakwa, Richard. 2015b. Russian Neo-Revisionism and Dilemmas of Eurasian Integration. In Power, Politics and Confrontation in Eurasia: Foreign Policy in a Contested Area, ed. Roger E. Kanet, and Matthew Sussex, 111–134. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Saltzman, Ilai Z. 2012. Russian Grand Strategy and the United States in the 21st Century. Orbis 56 (4): 547–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Shlapentokh, Dmitry. 2014. The Great Friendship: Geopolitical Fantasies About the Russia/Europe Alliance in the Early Putin Era (2000–2008)—The Case of Alexander Dugin. Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe 22 (1), 49–79.Google Scholar
  69. Shlapentokh, Vladimir, with Joshua Woods. 2007. Contemporary Russia as a Feudal Society: A New Perspective on the Post-Soviet Era. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  70. Silvius, Ray. 2015. Eurasianism and Putin’s Embedded Civilizationalism. In The Eurasian Project and Europe. Regional Discontinuities and Geopolitics, ed. David Lane, and Vsevolod Samokhvalov, 75–88. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  71. Simón, Luis. 2013. Geopolitical Change, Grand Strategy and European Security. The EU-NATO Conundrum in Perspective. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Simón, Luis. 2014. Assessing NATO’s Eastern European “Flank”. Parameters 44 (3): 67–79.Google Scholar
  73. Simón, Luis. 2015. Britain, the European Union and the Future of Europe: A Geostrategic Perspective. The RUSI Journal 160 (5): 16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Simón, Luis. 2016. Balancing Priorities in America’s European Strategy. Parameters 46 (1): 13–24.Google Scholar
  75. Simón, Luis, and James Rogers. 2010. The Return of European Geopolitics. The RUSI Journal 155 (3): 58–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stewart-Ingersoll, Robert, and Derrick Frazier. 2012. Regional Powers and Security Orders: A Theoretical Framework. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  77. Studzińska, Zofia. 2015. How Russia, Step by Step, Wants to Regain an Imperial Role in the Global and European Security System. Connections. The Quarterly Journal 14 (4): 21–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sussex, Matthew. 2015. From Retrenchment to Revanchism… and Back Again? In Russia, Eurasia and the New Geopolitics of Energy. Confrontation and Consolidation, ed. Roger E. Kanet, and Matthew Sussex, 19–41. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Szabo, Stephen F. 2016. Transatlantic Academy’s Szabo: The Future of NATO and European Security. Defense News, December 5. http://www.defensenews.com/articles/transatlantic-academys-szabo-the-future-of-nato-and-european-security.
  80. The Economist. February 11, 2017. What America Might Want from Russia, but Is Unlikely to Get. http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21716612-vladimir-putin-could-do-very-well-out-donald-trump-what-america-might-want-russia.
  81. The Economist. April 12, 2017. Europe is Trying to Keep Russia from Influencing Its Elections. http://www.economist.com/news/europe/21720665-france-and-germany-fear-propaganda-and-espionage-favouring-pro-kremlin-candidates-europe-trying.
  82. Tudoroiu, Theodor. 2014. The Regional Foreign Policies of Black Sea “New Populist” Leaders. Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe 22 (2), 161–180.Google Scholar
  83. Tudoroiu, Theodor. 2016. Unfreezing Failed Frozen Conflicts: A Post-Soviet Case Study. Journal of Contemporary European Studies 24 (3): 375–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Webber, Mark, Ellen Hallams, and Martin A. Smith. 2014. Repairing NATO’s Motors. International Affairs 90 (4): 773–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. White, Stephen, and Valentina Feklyunina. 2014. Identities and Foreign Policies in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. The Other Europes. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  86. Williams, Michael C., and Iver B. Neumann. 2000. From Alliance to Security Community: NATO, Russia, and the Power of Identity. Millennium: Journal of International Studies 29 (2): 357–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wolff, Andrew T. 2015. The Future of NATO Enlargement After the Ukraine Crisis. International Affairs 91 (5): 1103–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zevelev, Igor. 2015. Russian Perspectives on US-China Relations and the Twenty-First-Century Global System. In Great Powers and Geopolitics. International Affairs in a Rebalancing World, ed. Aharon Klieman, 139–159. Cham, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht, and London: Springer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Political Science DepartmentUniversity of the West IndiesSt. AugustineTrinidad and Tobago

Personalised recommendations