Advertisement

Exploring the Role of Family Firm Identity and Market Focus on the Heterogeneity of Family Business Branding Strategies

Chapter

Abstract

Family firms vary in their decision of whether or not to communicate the involvement of the family in the firm as part of their branding attempts. Currently, we do not have a clear understanding of why these differences in branding practices occur. In an attempt to address this gap, the current chapter develops a model to explain why there is heterogeneity in the branding practices of family firms. Taking a sender approach, we develop a conceptual model to understand why and how two predictors (i.e., family firm identity and market orientation) drive the decision of family business representatives regarding the choice to explicitly and actively communicate the “Family Business Brand” (i.e., the involvement of the family in the business). This chapter develops the rationale for this model and presents ideas for future research.

Keywords

Family business branding Family business brand Communication strategies Family firm identity Market focus Heterogeneity 

References

  1. Albert, S., & Whetten, D. (1985). Organizational identity. Research in Organizational Behavior, 7, 263–295.Google Scholar
  2. Anisimova, T. A. (2007). The effects of corporate brand attributes on attitudinal and behavioural consumer loyalty. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 24(7), 395–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balmer, J. M. (2008). Identity based views of the corporation: Insights from corporate identity, organisational identity, social identity, visual identity, corporate brand identity and corporate image. European Journal of Marketing, 42(9/10), 879–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balmer, J. M., & Greyser, S. A. (2002). Managing the multiple identities of the corporation. California Management Review, 44(3), 72–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barney, J., Wright, M., & Ketchen, D. J. (2001). The resource-based view of the firm: Ten years after 1991. Journal of Management, 27(6), 625–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck, S. (2016). Brand management research in family firms – A structured review and suggestions for further research. Journal of Family Business Management, 2016(6), 1–26.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, S., & Prügl, R. (2015). Being perceived as a family firm and new product acceptance: An empirical analysis. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2015(1), 14202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Belz, C. (2006). Spannung Marke: Markenführung für komplexe Unternehmen. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Binz Astrachan, C., & Astrachan, J. (2015). Family business branding. Leveraging stakeholder trust. London: IFB Research Foundation.Google Scholar
  11. Binz Astrachan, C., & Botero, I. C. (2018). “We are a family firm”: An exploration of the motives for communicating the family business brand. Journal of Family Business Management, 8(1), 2–21.Google Scholar
  12. Binz, C., Hair, J. F., Pieper, T. M., & Baldauf, A. (2013). Exploring the effect of distinct family firm reputation on consumers’ preferences. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 4(1), 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blombäck, A., & Botero, I. C. (2013). Reputational capital in family firms: Understanding uniqueness from the stakeholder’s point of view. In K. X. Smyrnios, P. Z. Poutziouris, & S. Goel (Eds.). Handbook of research on family business (2nd ed, pp. 677–693). Cheltenham, UK/Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  14. Botero, I. C. (2014). Effects of communicating family ownership and organizational size on applicant’s attraction to a firm: An empirical examination of the USA and China. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 5(2), 184–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Botero, I. C., Thomas, J., Graves, C., & Fediuk, T. A. (2013). Understanding multiple family firm identities: An exploration of the communicated identity in official websites. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 4(1), 12–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown, T. J., Dacin, P. A., Pratt, M. G., & Whetten, D. A. (2006). Identity, intended image, construed image, and reputation: An interdisciplinary framework and suggested terminology. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(2), 99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carrigan, M., & Buckley, J. (2008). What’s so special about family business? An exploratory study of UK and Irish consumer experiences of family businesses. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 32(6), 656–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Celani, A., & Singh, P. (2011). Signaling theory and applicant attraction outcomes. Personnel Review, 40(1–2), 222–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chaiken, S. (1980). Heuristic versus systematic information processing and the use of source versus message cues in persuasion. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 39(5), 752–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chrisman, J. J., Chua, J. H., & Litz, R. A. (2004). Comparing the agency costs of family and non-family firms: Conceptual issues and exploratory evidence. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28(4), 335–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chrisman, J. J., Chua, J. H., & Sharma, P. (2005). Trends and directions in the development of a strategic management theory of the family firm. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(5), 555–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Christensen, L. T., & Cheney, G. (2004). Organizational identity. Linkages between ‘internal’ and ‘external’ organizational communication. In M. J. Hatch & M. Schultz (Eds.), Organizational identity. A reader (pp. 510–557). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Chua, J. H., Chrisman, J. J., Steier, L. P., & Rau, S. B. (2012). Sources of heterogeneity in family firms: An introduction. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(6), 1103–1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Craig, J. B., Dibrell, C., & Davis, P. S. (2008). Leveraging family-based brand identity to enhance firm competitiveness and performance in family businesses. Journal of Small Business Management, 46(3), 351–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. de Chernatony, L., & McWilliam, G. (1989). The varying nature of brands as assets. International Journal of Advertising, 8, 339–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dyer, W. G., & Whetten, D. A. (2006). Family firms and social responsibility: Preliminary evidence from the S&P 500. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(6), 785–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). Process theories of attitude formation and change: The elaboration likelihood and heuristic-systematic models. In A. H. Eagly & S. Chaiken (Eds.), The psychology of attitudes (pp. 303–350). Orlando: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  28. Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 343–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gallucci, C., Santulli, R., & Calabrò, A. (2015). Does family involvement foster or hinder firm performance? The missing role of family-based branding strategies. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 6(3), 155–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gummesson, E. (2004). Return on relationships (ROR): The value of relationship marketing and CRM in business-to-business contexts. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 19(2), 136–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Habbershon, T. G., & Williams, M. L. (1999). A resource-based framework for assessing the strategic advantages of family firms. Family Business Review, 12(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Habbershon, T. G., Williams, M., & MacMillan, I. C. (2003). A unified systems perspective of family firm performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(4), 451–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kahlert, C., Botero, I. C., & Prügl, R. (2017). Revealing the family: Effects of being perceived as a family firm in the German recruiting market. Journal of Family Business Management, 7(1), 21–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kashmiri, S., & Mahajan, V. (2010). What’s in a name? An analysis of the strategic behavior of family firms. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 27(3), 271–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Keller, K. L. (2008). Strategic brand management: Building, measuring, and managing brand equity (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  37. Kleinalenkamp, M. (2000). Einführung in das Business-to-Business Marketing. In M. Kleinaltenkamp & W. Plinke (Eds.), Technischer Vertrieb – Grundlagen des Business-to-Business-Marketing (pp. 171–247). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  38. Krappe, A., Goutas, L., & von Schlippe, A. (2011). The family business brand: An enquiry into the construction of the image of family businesses. Journal of Family Business Management, 1(1), 37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kumar, V. (2015). Evolution of marketing as a discipline: What has happened and what to look out for. Journal of Marketing, 79(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. LaForet, S. (2009). Managing brands – A contemporary perspective. Berkshire: McGraw-Hill Education.Google Scholar
  41. Leek, S., & Christodoulides, G. (2011). A literature review and future agenda for B2B branding: Challenges of branding in a B2B context. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(6), 830–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lennartz, E. M., Fischer, M., Krafft, M., & Peters, K. (2015). Drivers of B2B brand strength insights from an international study across industries. Schmalenbach Business Review: ZFBF, 67(1), 114–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lude, M., & Prügl, R. (2016, June 1–4). Effects of communicating the family firm status on brand perception: Insights from an experimental study. Paper presented at The Annual European Academy of Management Conference, Université Paris-Est Créteil Val de Marne, Paris.Google Scholar
  44. Lynch, J., & De Chernatony, L. (2004). The power of emotion: Brand communication in business-to-business markets. The Journal of Brand Management, 11(5), 403–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Memili, E., Eddleston, K., Kellermanns, F., Zellweger, T., & Barnett, T. (2010). The critical path to family firm success through entrepreneurial risk taking and image. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 1(1), 200–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mencarelli, R., & Riviere, A. (2015). Perceived value in B2B and B2C: A comparative approach and cross-fertilization. Marketing Theory, 15(2), 201–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mervold, C. (1994). Business-to-Business-Kommunikation: Bedingungen und Wirkungen (10th ed.). Hamburg: Spiegel.Google Scholar
  48. Micelotta, E., & Raynard, M. (2011). Concealing or revealing the family? Corporate brand identity strategies in family firms. Family Business Review, 24, 97–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Miller, D., Le Breton-Miller, I., Lester, R., & Cannella, A. (2005). Family involvement, agency and financial performance in the fortune 1000.Working paper, HEC Montreal.Google Scholar
  50. Mitchell, C. (2002, January). Selling the brand inside. Harvard Business Review, 80(1), 99–105.Google Scholar
  51. Orth, U., & Green, M. (2009). Consumer loyalty to family versus non-family business: The roles of store image, trust and satisfaction. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 16(4), 248–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pratt, M. G., & Foreman, P. O. (2000). Classifying managerial responses to multiple organizational identities. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 18–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sageder, M., Mitter, C., & Feldbauer-Durstmüller, B. (2016). Image and reputation of family firms: a systematic literature review of the state of research. Review of Managerial Science, 12(1), 335–377.Google Scholar
  54. Schultheiss, B. (2011). Markenorientierung und -führung für B-to-B Familie-nunternehmen. Determinanten, Erfolgsauswirkungen und instrumentelle Ausgestaltung. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag.Google Scholar
  55. Sharma, P. (2004). An overview of the field of family business studies: Current status and directions for the future. Family Business Review, 17(1), 293–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sirmon, D. G., & Hitt, M. A. (2003). Managing resources: Linking unique resources, management, and wealth creation in family firms. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(4), 339–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Spence, M. (1973). Job market signaling. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87(3), 355–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Steier, L. (2001). Next-generation entrepreneurs and succession: An exploratory study of modes and means of managing social capital. Family Business Review, 14(3), 259–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sundaramurthy, C., & Kreiner, G. E. (2008). Governing by managing identity boundaries: The case of family businesses. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(3), 415–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tagiuri, R., & Davis, J. (1996). Bivalent attributes of the family firm. Family Business Review, 9(2), 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Whetten, D., & Mackey, A. (2002). A social actor conception of organizational identity and its implications for the study of organizational reputation. Business and Society, 41(4), 393–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zellweger, T. M., Eddleston, K. A., & Kellermanns, F. W. (2010). Exploring the concept of familiness: Introducing family firm identity. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 1(1), 54–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zellweger, T. M., Kellermanns, F. W., Eddleston, K. A., & Memili, E. (2012). Building a family firm image: How family firms capitalize on their family ties. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 3(4), 239–250.Google Scholar
  64. Zhang, J. Z., Watson, G. F., Palmatier, R. W., & Dant, R. P. (2016). Dynamic relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 80(5), 53–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Family Enterprise Center & Department of ManagementStetson UniversityDeLandUSA
  2. 2.Friedrichshafen Institute for Family Entrepreneurship | FIFZeppelin UniversityFriedrichshafenGermany
  3. 3.FIF@Zeppelin UniversityFriedrichshafen | Lake ConstanceGermany

Personalised recommendations