Special Types of Domains
In this chapter, we begin with a specific and rather familiar sort of integral domain, and then generalize slightly in each section. First, we define a polynomial ring over a field, and show that we have a division algorithm in such a ring. As a result, this polynomial ring is a special type of ring called a Euclidean domain. Subsequently, we demonstrate that Euclidean domains are principal ideal domains; that is, every ideal is principal. Finally, we prove that principal ideal domains are examples of unique factorization domains, in which we have something similar to the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.
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