Emotions of Excellence: Communal and Agentic Functions of Pride, Moral Elevation, and Admiration



Excellence is a potent emotional elicitor. When it is oneself that achieves excellence, pride can arise. When another person achieves excellence, moral elevation and admiration can arise. This trio of “emotions of excellence” serves both communal and agentic functions. This chapter reviews these functions as well as how such functions might play out in one example context – the workplace – and concludes by outlining paths for future research, highlighting the need for integrative work across emotions and across functions as well as the application of new technologies to this intriguing area of research.


Excellence Communion and agency Pride Moral elevation Admiration 


  1. Abele, A. E., Hauke, N., Peters, K., Louvet, E., Szymkow, A., & Duan, Y. (2016). Facets of the fundamental content dimensions: Agency with competence and assertiveness—Communion with warmth and morality. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1810.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abele, A. E., & Wojciszke, B. (2014). Communal and agentic content in social cognition: A dual perspective model. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 50, 195–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ai, A. L., Wink, P., Gall, T. L., Dillon, M., & Tice, T. N. (2017). Assessing reverence in contexts. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 57, 64–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Algoe, S. B., & Haidt, J. (2009). Witnessing excellence in action: The “other-praising” emotions of elevation, gratitude, and admiration. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 105–127.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aquino, K., McFerran, B., & Laven, M. (2011). Moral identity and the experience of moral elevation in response to acts of uncommon goodness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 703–718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashton-James, C. E., & Tracy, J. L. (2012). Pride and prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 466–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bakan, D. (1966). The duality of human existence: An essay on psychology and religion. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  8. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bicchieri, C. (2005). The grammar of society: The nature and dynamics of social norms. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boezeman, E. J., & Ellemers, N. (2007). Volunteering for charity: Pride, respect, and the commitment of volunteers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 771–785.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boezeman, E. J., & Ellemers, N. (2008). Pride and respect in volunteers’ organizational commitment. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 159–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bureau, J. S., Vallerand, R. J., Ntoumanis, N., & Lafrenière, M.-A. K. (2013). On passion and moral behavior in achievement settings: The mediating role of pride. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 121–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Butt, A. N., & Choi, J. N. (2006). The effects of cognitive appraisal and emotion on social motive and negotiation behavior: The critical role of agency of negotiator emotion. Human Performance, 19, 305–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Butt, A. N., Choi, J. N., & Jaeger, A. M. (2005). The effects of self-emotion, counterpart emotion, and counterpart behavior on negotiator behavior: A comparison of individual-level and dyad-level dynamics. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 681–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carver, C. S., Sinclair, S., & Johnson, S. L. (2010). Authentic and hubristic pride: Differential relations to aspects of goal regulation, affect, and self-control. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 698–703.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Damian, R. I., & Robins, R. W. (2013). Aristotle’s virtue or Dante’s deadliest sin? The influence of authentic and hubristic pride on creative achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 26, 156–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davies, J., & Williams, L. A. (2018, in preparation). “I’m Proud of You”: Empirical support for three functions of vicarious pride.Google Scholar
  18. Delvaux, E., Meeussen, L., & Mesquita, B. (2016). Emotions are not always contagious: Longitudinal spreading of self-pride and group pride in homogeneous and status-differentiated groups. Cognition and Emotion, 30, 101–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DeWall, C. N., & Bushman, B. J. (2011). Social acceptance and rejection. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 256–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dickens, L., & DeSteno, D. (2014). Pride attenuates nonconscious mimicry. Emotion, 14, 7–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Diessner, R., Iyer, R., Smith, M. M., & Haidt, J. (2013). Who engages with moral beauty? Journal of Moral Education, 42, 139–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dorfman, A., Eyal, T., & Bereby-Meyer, Y. (2014). Proud to cooperate: The consideration of pride promotes cooperation in a social dilemma. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55, 105–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ellemers, N., Kingma, L., van de Burgt, J., & Barreto, M. (2011). Corporate social responsibility as a source of organizational morality, employee commitment and satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Moral Psychology, 1, 97–124.Google Scholar
  24. Erickson, T. M., & Abelson, J. L. (2012). Even the downhearted may be uplifted: Moral elevation in the daily life of clinically depressed and anxious adults. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 31, 707–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Erickson, T. M., McGuire, A. P., Scarsella, G. M., Crouch, T. A., Lewis, J. A., Eisenlohr, A. P., & Muresan, T. J. (2018, in press). Viral videos and virtue: Moral elevation inductions shift affect and interpersonal goals in daily life. The Journal of Positive Psychology.
  26. Etxebarria, I., Ortiz, M. J., Apodaca, P., Pascual, A., & Conejero, S. (2014). Antecedents of moral pride: The harder the action, the greater the pride? Spanish Journal of Psychology, 17, E52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Etxebarria, I., Ortiz, M.-J., Apodaca, P., Pascual, A., & Conejero, S. (2015). Pride as moral motive: Moral pride and prosocial behaviour. Infancia Y Aprendizaje, 38, 746–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Feather, N. T. (2006). Deservingness and emotions: Applying the structural model of deservingness to the analysis of affective reactions to outcomes. European Review of Social Psychology, 17, 38–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., & Glick, P. (2007). Universal dimensions of social cognition: Warmth and competence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 77–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ford, M. T., Agosta, J. P., Huang, J., & Shannon, C. (2018). Moral emotions toward others at work and implications for employee behavior: A qualitative analysis using critical incidents. Journal of Business and Psychology, 33, 155–180. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fredrickson, B. L. (2003). Positive emotions and upward spirals in organizations. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 163–175). San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  33. Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Positive emotions broaden and build. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 1–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fredrickson, B. L., Cohn, M. A., Coffey, K. A., Pek, J., & Finkel, S. M. (2008). Open hearts build lives: Positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1045–1062.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fredrickson, B. L., & Joiner, T. E. (2002). Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science, 13, 172–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Freeman, D., Aquino, K., & McFerran, B. (2009). Overcoming beneficiary race as an impediment to charitable donations: Social dominance orientation, the experience of moral elevation, and donation behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 72–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Galliani, E. M., & Vianello, M. (2012). The emotion of admiration improves employees’ goal orientations and contextual performance. International Journal of Applied Psychology, 2, 43–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Greenaway, K. H., & Kalokerinos, E. K. (2017). Suppress for success? Exploring the contexts in which expressing positive emotion can have social costs. European Review of Social Psychology, 28, 134–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Han, H., Kim, J., Jeong, C., & Cohen, G. L. (2017). Attainable and relevant moral exemplars are more effective than extraordinary exemplars in promoting voluntary service engagement. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 283.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Harms, W., & Skyrms, B. (2008). Evolution of moral norms. In M. Ruse (Ed.), The oxford handbook of philosophy of biology (pp. 434–450). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Hart, D., & Matsuba, M. K. (2007). The development of pride and moral life. In J. L. Tracy, R. W. Robins, & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), The self-conscious emotions: Theory and research (pp. 114–133). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  42. Harth, N. S., Kessler, T., & Leach, C. W. (2008). Advantaged group’s emotional reactions to intergroup inequality: The dynamics of pride, guilt, and sympathy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 115–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Harth, N. S., Leach, C. W., & Kessler, T. (2013). Guilt, anger, and pride about in-group environmental behaviour: Different emotions predict distinct intentions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 34, 18–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Helgeson, V. S., & Fritz, H. L. (1999). Unmitigated agency and unmitigated communion: Distinctions from agency and communion. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 131–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Helm, S. (2013). A matter of reputation and pride: Associations between perceived external reputation, pride in membership, job satisfaction and turnover intentions. British Journal of Management, 24, 542–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Herrald, M. M., & Tomaka, J. (2002). Patterns of emotion-specific appraisal, coping, and cardiovascular reactivity during an ongoing emotional episode. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 434–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hill, S. E., DelPriore, D. J., & Vaughan, P. W. (2011). The cognitive consequences of envy: Attention, memory, and self-regulatory depletion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 653–666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hodson, R. (1998). Pride in task completion and organizational citizenship behaviour: Evidence from the ethnographic literature. Work & Stress, 12, 307–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hofmann, W., & Fisher, R. R. (2012). How guilt and pride shape subsequent self-control. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 682–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hogan, R. (1982). A socioanalytic theory of personality. In M. Page (Ed.), 1982 Nebraska symposium on motivation: Personality – current theory and research (pp. 55–89). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  51. Horberg, E. J., Kraus, M. W., & Keltner, D. J. (2013). Pride displays communicate self-interest and support for meritocracy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 24–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Horowitz, L. M., Wilson, K. R., Turan, B., Zolotsev, P., Constantino, M. J., & Henderson, L. (2006). How interpersonal motives clarify the meaning of interpersonal behavior: A revised circumplex model. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 67–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Intille, S. S. (2007). Technological innovations enabling automatic, context-sensitive ecological momentary assessment. In A. Stone, S. Shiffman, A. A. Atienza, & L. Nebeling (Eds.), The science of real-time data capture: Self reports in health research (pp. 308–337). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Janicke, S. H., & Oliver, M. B. (2017). The relationship between elevation, connectedness, and compassionate love in meaningful films. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 6, 274–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Johnson, K. J., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2005). “We all look the same to me”: Positive emotions eliminate the own-race in face recognition. Psychological Science, 16, 875–881.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kosinski, M., Matz, S. C., Gosling, S. D., Popov, V., & Stillwell, D. (2015). Facebook as a research tool for the social sciences: Opportunities, challenges, ethical considerations, and practical guidelines. American Psychologist, 70, 543–556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Krettenauer, T., & Casey, V. (2015). Moral identity development and positive moral emotions: Differences involving authentic and hubristic pride. Identity, 15, 173–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Krettenauer, T., & Jia, F. (2013). Investigating the actor effect in moral emotion expectancies across cultures: A comparison of Chinese and Canadian adolescents. The British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 31, 349–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Krettenauer, T., Jia, F., & Mosleh, M. (2011). The role of emotion expectancies in adolescents’ moral decision making. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 358–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lai, C. K., Haidt, J., & Nosek, B. A. (2013). Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men. Cognition and Emotion, 28, 781–794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Landis, S. K., Sherman, M. F., Piedmont, R. L., Kirkhart, M. W., Rapp, E. M., & Bike, D. H. (2009). The relation between elevation and self-reported prosocial behavior: Incremental validity over the five-factor model of personality. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 71–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lange, J., & Crusius, J. (2015). The tango of two deadly sins: The social-functional relation of envy and pride. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109, 453–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lazarus, R. S., & Cohen-Charash, Y. (2001). Discrete emotions in organizational life. In R. Payne & C. Cooper (Eds.), Emotions at work: Theory, research and applications for management (pp. 45–81). West Sussex: Wiley.Google Scholar
  64. Liu, C., Lai, W., Yu, G., & Chen, C. (2014). The individual and collective facets of pride in chinese college students. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 36, 176–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Locke, K. D. (2015). Agentic and communal social motives. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 9, 525–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mack, D. E., Kouali, D., Gilchrist, J. D., & Sabiston, C. M. (2015). Pride and physical activity: Behavioural regulations as a motivational mechanism? Psychology and Health, 30, 1049–1062.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Martens, J. P., & Tracy, J. L. (2012). The emotional origins of a social learning bias: Does the pride expression cue copying? Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 492–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Martens, J. P., Tracy, J. L., & Shariff, A. F. (2011). Status signals: Adaptive benefits of displaying and observing the nonverbal expressions of pride and shame. Cognition and Emotion, 26, 390–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mascolo, M. F., & Fischer, K. W. (1995). Developmental transformations in appraisals for pride, shame, and guilt. In J. P. Tangney & K. W. Fischer (Eds.), Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride (pp. 64–113). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  70. Masser, B., Smith, G., & Williams, L. A. (2014). Donor research in australia: Challenges and promise. Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy, 41, 296–301.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McAdams, D. P. (1988). Power, intimacy, and the life story: Personological inquiries into identity. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  72. Mehl, M. R. (2017). The electronically activated recorder (EAR). Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26, 184–190.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Michie, S. (2009). Pride and gratitude: How positive emotions influence the prosocial behaviors of organizational leaders. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15, 393–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Miller, G. (2012). The smartphone psychology manifesto. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 221–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Murphy, S. C. (2017). A hands-on guide to conducting psychological research on twitter. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8, 396–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Oliver, M. B., Hartmann, T., & Woolley, J. K. (2012). Elevation in response to entertainment portrayals of moral virtue. Human Communication Research, 38, 360–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Oliver, M. B., Kim, K., Hoewe, J., Chung, M. Y., Ash, E., Woolley, J. K., & Shade, D. D. (2015). Media-induced elevation as a means of enhancing feelings of intergroup connectedness. Journal of Social Issues, 71, 106–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Onu, D., Kessler, T., & Smith, J. R. (2016). Admiration: A conceptual review. Emotion Review, 8, 218–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Oveis, C., Horberg, E. J., & Keltner, D. J. (2010). Compassion, pride, and social intuitions of self-other similarity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 618–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pinkus, R. T., Lockwood, P., Marshall, T. C., & Yoon, H. M. (2012). Responses to comparisons in romantic relationships: Empathy, shared fate, and contrast. Personal Relationships, 19, 182–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pohling, R., & Diessner, R. (2016). Moral elevation and moral beauty: A review of the empirical literature. Review of General Psychology, 20, 412–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ray, D. G., Mackie, D. M., Smith, E. R., & Terman, A. W. (2012). Discrete emotions elucidate the effects of crossed-categorization on prejudice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 55–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Salerno, A., Laran, J., & Janiszewski, C. (2015). Pride and regulatory behavior: The influence of appraisal information and self-regulatory goals. Journal of Consumer Research, 42, 499–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sanders, S., Wisse, B., Van Yperen, N. W., & Rus, D. (2018, in press). On ethically solvent leaders: The roles of pride and moral identity in predicting leader ethical behavior. Journal of Business Ethics.
  85. Sarapin, S. H., Christy, K., Lareau, L., Krakow, M., & Jensen, J. D. (2015). Identifying admired models to increase emulation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 48, 95–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schindler, I., Paech, J., & Löwenbrück, F. (2015). Linking admiration and adoration to self-expansion: Different ways to enhance one’s potential. Cognition and Emotion, 29, 292–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schindler, I., Zink, V., Windrich, J., & Menninghaus, W. (2013). Admiration and adoration: Their different ways of showing and shaping who we are. Cognition and Emotion, 27, 85–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schnall, S., & Roper, J. (2012). Elevation puts moral values into action. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 373–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schnall, S., Roper, J., & Fessler, D. M. T. (2010). Elevation leads to altruistic behavior. Psychological Science, 21, 315–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schori-Eyal, N., Tagar, M. R., Saguy, T., & Halperin, E. (2015). The benefits of group-based pride: Pride can motivate guilt in intergroup conflicts among high glorifiers. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 61, 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schubert, T. W., Zickfeld, J. H., Seibt, B., & Fiske, A. P. (2018). Moment-to-moment changes in feeling moved match changes in closeness, tears, goosebumps, and warmth: Time series analyses. Cognition and Emotion, 32, 174–184. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Seger, C. R., Banerji, I., Park, S. H., Smith, E. R., & Mackie, D. M. (2017). Specific emotions as mediators of the effect of intergroup contact on prejudice: Findings across multiple participant and target groups. Cognition and Emotion, 31, 923–936.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Seger, C. R., Smith, E. R., & Mackie, D. M. (2009). Subtle activation of a social categorization triggers group-level emotions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 460–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Seibt, B., Schubert, T. W., Zickfeld, J. H., & Fiske, A. P. (2017). Interpersonal closeness and morality predict feelings of being moved. Emotion, 17, 389–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Shariff, A. F., & Tracy, J. L. (2009). Knowing who’s boss: Implicit perceptions of status from the nonverbal expression of pride. Emotion, 9, 631–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Shariff, A. F., Tracy, J. L., & Markusoff, J. L. (2012). (Implicitly) judging a book by its cover: The power of pride and shame expressions in shaping judgments of social status. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1178–1193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Shimoni, E., Asbe, M., Eyal, T., & Berger, A. (2016). Too proud to regulate: The differential effect of pride versus joy on children’s ability to delay gratification. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 141, 275–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Siegel, J. T., Thomson, A. L., & Navarro, M. A. (2014). Experimentally distinguishing elevation from gratitude: Oh, the morality. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9, 414–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Silvers, J. A., & Haidt, J. (2008). Moral elevation can induce nursing. Emotion, 8, 291–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Smith, R. H., & Kim, S. H. (2007). Comprehending envy. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 46–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Staw, B. M., Sutton, R. I., & Pelled, L. H. (1994). Employee positive emotion and favorable outcomes at the workplace. Organization Science, 5, 51–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Strohminger, N., Lewis, R. L., & Meyer, D. E. (2011). Divergent effects of different positive emotions on moral judgment. Cognition, 119, 295–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sweetman, J., Spears, R., Livingstone, A. G., & Manstead, A. S. R. (2013). Admiration regulates social hierarchy: Antecedents, dispositions, and effects on intergroup behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 534–542.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tangney, J. P., Stuewig, J., & Mashek, D. J. (2007). Moral emotions and moral behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 345–372.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Thomson, A. L., Nakamura, J., Siegel, J. T., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Elevation and mentoring: An experimental assessment of causal relations. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9, 402–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Thomson, A. L., & Siegel, J. T. (2013). A moral act, elevation, and prosocial behavior: Moderators of morality. Journal of Positive Psychology, 8, 50–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Thomson, A. L., & Siegel, J. T. (2017). Elevation: A review of scholarship on a moral and other-praising emotion. Journal of Positive Psychology, 12, 628–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Tracy, J. L., & Matsumoto, D. (2008). The spontaneous expression of pride and shame: Evidence for biologically innate nonverbal displays. Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences, 105, 11655–11660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2007a). Emerging insights into the nature and function of pride. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 147–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2007b). The prototypical pride expression: Development of a nonverbal behavior coding system. Emotion, 7, 789–801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2007c). The psychological structure of pride: A tale of two facets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 506–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tracy, J. L., Robins, R. W., & Tangney, J. P. (2007). The self-conscious emotions: Theory and research. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  113. Tracy, J. L., Shariff, A. F., Zhao, W., & Henrich, J. (2013). Cross-cultural evidence that the nonverbal expression of pride is an automatic status signal. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 163–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Tracy, J. L., Weidman, A. C., Cheng, J. T., & Martens, J. P. (2012). Pride: The fundamental emotion of success, power, and status. In M. M. Tugade, M. N. Shiota, & L. D. Kirby (Eds.), Handbook of positive emotion (pp. 294–310). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  115. Trapnell, P. D., & Paulhus, D. L. (2012). Agentic and communal values: Their scope and measurement. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 39–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Tyler, T. R., & Blader, S. L. (2002). Autonomous vs. comparative status: Must we be better than others to feel good about ourselves? Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 89, 813–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tzafrir, S. S., & Hareli, S. (2009). Employees’ emotional reactions to promotion decisions. Career Development International, 14, 351–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Van Cappellen, P., Saroglou, V., Iweins, C., Piovesana, M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Self-transcendent positive emotions increase spirituality through basic world assumptions. Cognition and Emotion, 27, 1378–1394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. van de Ven, N. (2017). Envy and admiration: Emotion and motivation following upward social comparison. Cognition and Emotion, 31, 193–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. van de Ven, N., Zeelenberg, M., & Pieters, R. (2009). Leveling up and down: The experiences of benign and malicious envy. Emotion, 9, 419–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. van de Ven, N., Zeelenberg, M., & Pieters, R. (2011). Why envy outperforms admiration. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 784–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Van de Vyver, J., & Abrams, D. (2015). Testing the prosocial effectiveness of the prototypical moral emotions: Elevation increases benevolent behaviors and outrage increases justice behaviors. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 58, 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Van de Vyver, J., & Abrams, D. (2016). Is moral elevation an approach-oriented emotion? The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12, 178–185.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. van der Schalk, J., Kuppens, T., Bruder, M., & Manstead, A. S. R. (2015). The social power of regret: The effect of social appraisal and anticipated emotions on fair and unfair allocations in resource dilemmas. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144, 151–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. van Leeuwen, E., van Dijk, W., & Kaynak, Ü. (2013). Of saints and sinners: How appeals to collective pride and guilt affect outgroup helping. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 16, 781–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Verbeke, W., Belschak, F., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2004). The adaptive consequences of pride in personal selling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32, 386–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Vianello, M., Galliani, E. M., & Haidt, J. (2010). Elevation at work: The effects of leaders’ moral excellence. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 390–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Webb, L., Stegall, S., Mirabile, S., Zeman, J., Shields, A., & Perry-Parrish, C. (2016). The management and expression of pride: Age and gender effects across adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 52, 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Weisfeld, G. E., & Dillon, L. M. (2012). Applying the dominance hierarchy model to pride and shame, and related behaviors. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, 10, 15–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wilcox, K., Kramer, T., & Sen, S. (2011). Indulgence or self-control: A dual process model of the effect of incidental pride on indulgent choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 38, 151–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Williams, L. A., & Davies, J. (2017). Beyond the self: Pride felt in relation to others. In A. Carter & E. Gordon (Eds.), The moral psychology of pride (pp. 43–68). London, England: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  132. Williams, L. A., & DeSteno, D. (2008). Pride and perseverance: The motivational role of pride. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 1007–1017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Williams, L. A., & DeSteno, D. (2009). Pride. Psychological Science, 20, 284–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Williams, L. A., & DeSteno, D. (2010). Pride in parsimony. Emotion Review, 2, 180–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Williams, L. A., & Godwin, A. (2018, in preparation). The differential impact of authentic and hubristic pride expressions on social inclusion.Google Scholar
  136. Wong, E., Tschan, F., Messerli, L., & Semmer, N. K. (2013). Expressing and amplifying positive emotions facilitate goal attainment in workplace interactions. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 188.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wubben, M. J. J., De Cremer, D., & van Dijk, E. (2012). Is pride a prosocial emotion? Interpersonal effects of authentic and hubristic pride. Cognition and Emotion, 26, 1084–1097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Ybarra, O., Chan, E., Park, H., Burnstein, E., Monin, B., & Stanik, C. (2008). Life’s recurring challenges and the fundamental dimensions: An integration and its implications for cultural differences and similarities. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 1083–1092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Zickfeld, J. H., Schubert, T. W., Seibt, B., & Fiske, A. P. (2017). Empathic concern is part of a more general communal emotion. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 723.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Psychology, University of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations