Nanoscale Processes Giving Rise to Ion Pores

  • Mohammad Ashrafuzzaman


Agents such as drugs, peptides, biomolecules that are classified as cell active agents (CAAs) get distributed on the cell surface while they are administered to reach out to cellular targets. Study on cell surface morphology may help us address the distribution of CAAs. Cell surface separates hydrophobic cell membrane core from the cell surrounding water environment. The cell membrane’s outer surface is hydrophilic. In an attempt made by any type of agents to enter into the cell, at the first point of entry, the agents have to get transported naturally or via carriers across the hydrophilic–hydrophobic boundary.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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