Fitness Challenge: Too Many or Too Few

  • Jo. M. Martins
  • Fei Guo
  • David A. Swanson


Humans are living beings and share some characteristics with other living organisms. Reproduction is one of the features of life.


  1. Arshat, H., Tan, A. T., Peng, T. N., & Subbiah, M. (1988). Marriage & family formation in Peninsula Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: National Population and Family Development Board.Google Scholar
  2. Becker, G. S. (1960). An economic analysis of fertility. In A. J. Coale (Ed.), Demographic and economic change in developed countries. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Becker, G. S. (1995). Human capital and poverty alleviation. HROWP 52, March 1995. Washington DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  4. Bongaarts, J. (1978). The proximate determinants of fertility. Population and Development Review, 3(4), 278–325.Google Scholar
  5. Coale, A. (1973). The demographic transition. In Proceedings of the of the general population conference (Vol. 1, pp. 53–72). Liege: International Union of for the Scientific Study of Population.Google Scholar
  6. Coleman, D., & Basten, S. (2015). The death of the west: an alternative view. Population Studies: A Journal of Demography, 69(S1), S107–S118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics (CBCS). (1968). Official year book of the Commonwealth of Australia No.54. Canberra.Google Scholar
  8. Davis, K., & Blake, J. (1956). Social structure and fertility: An analytical framework. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 4(1), 211–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Demeny, P. (2015). Sub-replacement fertility in national populations: Can it be raised? Population Studies: A Journal of Demography, 69(S1), S77–S85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Easterlin, R. A. (1966). On the relation of economic factors to recent and projected fertility changes. Demography, 1, 131–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Easterlin, R. A. (1968). Population, labor force, and the long swing in economic growth—The American experience. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  12. Ehrlich, P. R. (1969). The population bomb. Ballantine.Google Scholar
  13. Farabee, M. J. (2001a). Introduction: The nature of science and biology. Retrieved September 2, 2016, from
  14. Farabee, M. J. (2001b). Human genetics. Retrieved September 2, 2016, from
  15. Galloway, P., Lee, R., & Hammel, G. (1998). Infant mortality and the fertility transition: Macro evidence from Europe and new findings from Prussia. In M. Montgomery & B. Cohen (Eds.), From death to birth: Mortality decline and reproductive change. Washington DC: National Research Council.Google Scholar
  16. Gille, H. (1957). An international survey of recent fertility trends. In Demographic and economic change in developed countries. New York: Columbia University. Retrieved September 9, 2015, from
  17. Hara, T. (2015). A shrinking society—Post-demographic transition in Japan. Tokyo: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. Jeon, Y., & Shields, M. P. (2005). The Easterlin hypothesis in the recent experience of higher-income OECD countries: A panel-data approach. Journal of Population Economics, 18, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaplan, H. S., & Lancaster, J. B. (2003). An evolutionary and ecological analysis of human fertility, mating patterns and parental investment. National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved January 27, 2016, from
  20. Last, J. M. (1983). A dictionary of epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. MacDonald, K. (Undated). An evolutionary perspective on human fertility. Long Beach CA: California State University. Retrieved January 27, 2016, from
  22. Macunovich, D. (1996). Social security and retirees—An economist perspective. Washington DC: National Academy of Social Insurance.Google Scholar
  23. McFalls, J. A. (2003). Population: A lively introduction. Population Bulletin, 58(4).Google Scholar
  24. Meadows, D. H., Meadows, D. L., Randers, J., & Behrens, W. W. (1972). The limits of growth. London: Pan Books.Google Scholar
  25. Morgan, S. P. (2003). Is low fertility a twenty-first century demographic crisis? Demography, 40(4), 589–563.Google Scholar
  26. Myrdal, G. (1968). Asian drama: An inquiry into the poverty of nations (Vol. II, 1424). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  27. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2016). OECD Factbook 2015–2016. Paris. Retrieved September 12, 2016, from
  28. Palloni, A., & Rafalimanana, H. (1999). The effects of infant mortality on fertility revisited; new evidence from Latin America. Demography, 36(1), 41–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pampel, F. C., & Peters, H. E. (1995). The Easterlin effect. Annual Review of Sociology, 1995(25), 163–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Potter, J. E., Schmertmann, C. P., & Cavenaghi, S. M. (2002). Fertility and development: Evidence from Brazil. Demography, 39(4), 739–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ray, D. (1998). Development economics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Robinson, W. C. (2003). Demographic history and theory as guides to the future of world population growth. Genus, LIX(3-4), 11–41.Google Scholar
  33. Sen, A. (1999). Development as freedom. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  34. Statistics Bureau of Japan (SBJ). (2016). Statistical yearbook of Japan 2016. Tokyo: Ministry of Internal Affairs.Google Scholar
  35. Strassmann, B. I., & Gillespie, B. (2002). Life-history theory, fertility and reproductive success in humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 269, 553–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. United Nations (UN). (2002). World population prospects: The 2000 revision. Volume III—Analytical report. New York: Population Division.Google Scholar
  37. United Nations (UN). (2013). World population prospects: The 2012 revision. New York.Google Scholar
  38. United Nations (UN). (2015). Trends in contraceptive use worldwide 2015. New York.Google Scholar
  39. United Nations (UN). (2017). World population prospects—The 2017 revision—Volume I: Comprehensive tables. New York: Population Division.Google Scholar
  40. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2015). Human development report 2015. New York.Google Scholar
  41. Van de Walle, F. (1986). Infant mortality and the European demographic transition. In A. J. Coale & S. C. Watkins (Eds.), The decline of fertility in Europe. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Verena, G. (2004). Reproduction. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Marketing and ManagementMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of California RiversideRiversideUSA

Personalised recommendations