Population: Survival and Growth

  • Jo. M. Martins
  • Fei Guo
  • David A. Swanson


Early humans evolved some five to six million years ago, and from the last common grandmother of humans and chimpanzees around 2.5 million years ago, the genus homo arose with the development of stone tools.


  1. Abramov, O., & Mojzsis, S. J. (2009). Microbial habitability of the Hadean Earth during the late heavy bombardment. Nature, 459, 419–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Algaze, G. (2008). Ancient Mesopotamia at the dawn of civilization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews, P. (2015). An Ape’s view of human evolution. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boesch, C., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Chimpanzee and human cultures. Current Anthropology, 39(5), 591–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bolt, J., Trimmer, M., & van Zanden, J. L. (2014). GDP per capita since 1820. In J. L. Van Zanden, J. Baten, M. M. d’Ercole, A. Rijpma, C. Smith, & M. Timmer (Eds.), How was life? Global well-being since 1820. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  6. Boyden, S. (2004). The biology of civilisation. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, L. R. (1970). Seeds of change. New York: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. Caldwell, J. C. (2002). The contemporary population challenge. In Report of the Expert Group Committee meeting on completing the fertility transition. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  9. Cartmill, M., & Smith, F. H. (2009). The human lineage. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  10. Catling, D. C. (2014). The great oxidation event transition. In H. Holland & K. Turekian (Eds.), Treatise on geochemistry, Vol. 6: Atmosphere—History (pp. 177–195). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  11. Chatterjee, H. J., Ho, S. Y. W., Barnes, I., & Groves, C. (2009). Estimating the phylogeny and divergence times of primates using a super matrix approach. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9, 259. Retrieved May 16, 2016, from Scholar
  12. Cohen, K. M., Finney, S. C., Gibbard, P. L., & Fan, J.-K. (2013). The ICS international chronostratigraphic chart. Episodes, 36, 199–204. Retrieved March 18, 2015, from
  13. Copley, S. D., Smith, E., & Morowitz, H. J. (2007). The origin of the RNBA world: Co-evolution of genes and metabolism. Bioorganic Chemistry, 35, 430–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Danzer, G. A. (2000). Atlas of human history. Ann Arbor: Borders Group Inc.Google Scholar
  15. Dauphas, N., & Morbidelli, A. (2014). Geochemical and planetary dynamic views on the origin of earth’s atmosphere and the oceans. In H. Holland & K. Turekian (Eds.), Treatise on geochemistry. Atmosphere—History (Vol. 6, pp. 1–35). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  16. Diamond, J. (1997). Guns, germs, and steel. New York: W. W. Norton & Co.Google Scholar
  17. Galli, M. T., Jadoul, F., Bernasconi, S. M., & Weissert, H. (2005). Anomalies in global carbon cycling and extinction at Triassic/Jurassic boundary: Evidence from a marine C-isotope record. Palaeogeography, Palaeochemistry, Palaeoecology, 216(3–4), 203–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gelbard, A., Haub, C., & Kent, M. M. (1999). World population beyond six billion. Population Bulletin, 54(1), 1–44.Google Scholar
  19. Gibbons, A. (2011). Who were the Denisovans? Science, 333, 84–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Glazko, G. V., & Nei, M. (2003). Estimation of divergence times for major lineages of primate species. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 20(3), 424–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goldewijk, K. K. (2014). Environmental quality since 1820. In J. L. Van Zanden, J. Baten, M. M. d’Ercole, A. Rijpma, C. Smith, & M. Timmer (Eds.), How was life? Global well-being since 1820. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  22. Harari, Y. N. (2015). Sapiens: A brief history of humankind. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  23. Kirch, P. V. (1985). Feathered goods and fishhooks; an introduction to Hawaiian archaeology and prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
  24. Kravis, I. B., Heston, A. & Summers, R. (1982). World product and income—International comparison of real gross product. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Lancaster, H. O. (1990). Expectations of life. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Maddison, A. (2003). The world economy: Historical statistics. Paris: OECD.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McCaa, R. (2002). Paleodemography of the Americas: From ancient times to colonialism and beyond. In R. Seckel & J. Rose (Eds.), The Backbone of history: Health and nutrition in the western hemisphere (pp. 94–124). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McNeill, W. H. (1976). Plagues and people. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  29. Morwood, M. J., O’Sullivan, P. B., Aziz, F., & Raza, A. (1998). Fissions-track ages of stone tools and fossils on the east Indonesia island of Flores. Nature, 392(6672), 173–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Murphy, J. B., Nance, R. D., & Cawood, P. A. (2009). Contrasting modes of supercontinent formation and the conundrum of Pangea. Gondwana Research, 15, 408–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Murphy, M. A., & Salvador, A. (Undated). International stratigraphic guide—An abridged version. International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved March 18, 2015, from
  32. Noffke, N., Christian, D., Wacey, D., & Hazen, R. M. (2013). Microbially induced sedimentary structures recording and ancient ecosystem in the c.a. 3.48 billion-year old dresser formation, Pilbara, Western Australia. Astrobiology, 13(12), 1103–1124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Paabo, S. (2014). Neanderthal man: In search of lost genomes. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  34. Palmer, D., Brasier, M., Burnie, D., Cleal, C., Crane, P., Thomas, B. A., et al. (2012). Prehistoric life. New York: DK Publishing.Google Scholar
  35. Poston, D., & Bouvier, L. (2017). Population and society; an introduction to demography (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Reich, D., Patterson, N., Kircher, M., Delfin, F., Nandineni, M. R., Pugach, I., et al. (2011). Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 89, 516–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Roebroeks, W., & Villa, P. (2011). On the earliest evidence for habitual use of fire in Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(13). Retrieved May 22, 2016, from www.pas.or/content/108/13/5209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Royer, D. L. (2006). CO2-forced climate thresholds during the Phanerozoic. Geochimia et Cosmochimia Acta, 70, 5665–5675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sahney, S., & Benton, M. J. (2008). Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 275, 759–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sen, A. (1999). Development as freedom. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  41. Spray, J. G., Kelley, S. P., & Rowley, D. B. (1998). Evidence for a late Triassic multiple impact event on earth. Nature, 392, 171–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Srivastava, R. P. (2009). Morphology of primates and human evolution. New Delhi: PHI Learning.Google Scholar
  43. Stringer, C., & Andrews, P. (2011). The complete world of human evolution (2nd ed.). London: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  44. Summons, R. E., & Hallman, C. (2014). Organic geochemical signatures of early life on earth. In H. Holland & K. Turekian (Eds.), Treatise on geochemistry. Organic Geochemistry (Vol. 12, pp. 33–46). Amsterdam: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sutikna, T., Tocheri, M. W., Morwood, M. J., Saptomo, E. W., Jatmiko, Awe, R. D., Wasisto, S., et al. (2016). Revised stratigraphy and chronology for Homo floresiensis at Liang Bua in Indonesia. Nature, 532, 366–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. United Nations (UN). (1999). The world at six billion. New York.Google Scholar
  47. United Nations (UN). (2007). World population prospects—The 2006 revision. New York.Google Scholar
  48. United Nations (UN). (2013). World population prospects—The 2012 revision. New York.Google Scholar
  49. United Nations (UN). (2014). United Nations demographic yearbook. New York.Google Scholar
  50. United Nations (UN). (2016). International migration report 2015. New York.Google Scholar
  51. United Nations (UN). (2017). World population prospects—The 2017 revision. New York.Google Scholar
  52. United Nations Development Program (UNDP). (2014). Human development report 2014. New York.Google Scholar
  53. United Nations Development Program (UNDP) (2015). Human Development Report 2015—Technical Notes. New York. Retrieved August 21, 2016, from
  54. United Nations Development Program (UNDP). (2016). Human development report 2016. New York.Google Scholar
  55. United States Census Bureau (USCB). (2013). World population—Historical estimates of the world population. Retrieved May 24, 2016, from
  56. Van Leeuwen, B., & van Leeuwen-Li, J. (2014). Education since 1820. In J. L. Van Zanden, J. Baten, M. M. d’Ercole, A. Rijpma, C. Smith, & M. Timmer (Eds.), How was life? Global well-being since 1820. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  57. Wood, B., & Richmond, B. G. (2000). Human evolution: Taxonomy and paleobiology. Journal of Anatomy, 196, 19–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wood, B. (2014). Fifty years after Homo habilis. Nature, 508, 31–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yusuf, F., Martins, J. M., & Swanson, D. A. (2014). Methods of demographic analysis. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S. A., & Li, S. (2004). A Paleo-Mesoproterozoic supercontinent: Assembly, growth and breakup. Earth-Science Reviews, 67, 91–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Marketing and ManagementMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of California RiversideRiversideUSA

Personalised recommendations