State and Civil Society: A Regime Change?

Chapter
Part of the Nonprofit and Civil Society Studies book series (NCSS)

Abstract

In this chapter, we investigate the changes in the relationship between the state and the voluntary sector and discuss the implications the increased role of the market sector within health and human services has for the relationship between sectors. First, we discuss the changes in voluntary sector policy in Norway over the last couple of decades, where the sector experienced increased expectations as to its society contribution. Thereafter, we try to understand these changes by going back in time and look at the ideological and institutional structure of the voluntary sector just before and during the heyday of the welfare state. An important distinction is drawn between voluntary work and activities going on mainly at the local level in traditional voluntary organizations (small scale) and the institutionalized voluntary-based service production in the health and welfare sectors (large scale). We find that market solutions have strengthened its position in fundamental ways on behalf of the voluntary sector when looking at large-scale institutional service delivery, while the small-scale voluntary sector is as vibrant and extensive as ever before. These changes imply deep-going changes in the Nordic welfare model and the relationship between sectors, where market solutions increasingly take over as service providers at the expense of the voluntary sector.

Keywords

New public management (NPM) Government-third sector relations Public policies Social democracy Neoliberalism 

References

  1. Alapuro, R. (2010). Introdution: Comparative approaches to Associations and Civil Society in Nordic Countries. In R. Alapuro & H. Stenius (Eds.), Nordic Associations in a European perspective (pp. 11–28). Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnesen, D., Sivesind, K. H., & Gulbrandsen, T. (2016). Fra medlemsbaserte organisasjoner til koordinert frivillighet? Det norske organisasjonssamfunnet fra 1980 til 2013. Report 2016:5. Bergen/Oslo, Norway: Centre for Research on Civil Society and Voluntary Sector.Google Scholar
  3. Berven, N., & Selle, P. (Eds.). (2001). Svekket kvinnemakt. De frivillige organisasjonene og velferdsstaten. Oslo, Norway: Gyldendal Akademisk.Google Scholar
  4. Carlén, I., & Bruer, E. S. (2010). Sårbar frivillighet – en rapport om endringer i rammevilkår for barne- og ungdomsorganisasjonene og konsekvensene for lokale lag. Report. Oslo, Norway: Landsrådet for Norges barne- og ungdomsorganisasjoner.Google Scholar
  5. Centre for Research on Civil Society and Voluntary Sector. (07.07.2008). Nytt forskningsprogram om frivillig sektor. Retrieved from http://www.sivilsamfunn.no/Info/Aktuelt/Nytt-forskningsprogram-om-frivillig-sektor
  6. Christensen, D. A., Strømsnes, K., & Wollebæk, D. (2011). Organisasjonene i Hordaland 1999–2009. Report 2011:3. Oslo/Bergen, Norway: Center for Research on Civil Society & Voluntary Sector.Google Scholar
  7. Christensen, T., & Lægreid, P. (2008). The Challenges of Coordination in Central Government Organizations: The Norwegian Case. Public Organization Review, 8, 97–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clemet, K. (2013). Ideologiska perspektiv på det civila samhället. In L. Trägårdh, P. Selle, L. Skov Henriksen, & H. Hallin (Eds.), Civilsamhället klämt mellan stat och kapital: Velferd, mångfald, framtid (pp. 237–243). Stockholm, Sweden: SNS-förlag.Google Scholar
  9. Eikås, M., & Selle, P. (2002). A Contract Culture even in Scandinavia? In U. Ascoli & C. Ranci (Eds.), Dilemmas of the Welfare Mix. The New Structure of Welfare in an Era of Privatization (pp. 47–75). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  10. Eimhjellen, I., & Mjåland, K. (2012). Frå Frisam, Frivillighetens Samarbeidsorgan, til Frivillighet Norge. In P. Selle & K. Strømsnes (Eds.), Organisasjonene og det offentlige. Har vi fått en ny frivillighetspolitikk? (pp. 111–119.) Report 2012: 6. Bergen/Oslo, Norway: Centre for Research on Civil Society and Voluntary Sector.Google Scholar
  11. Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Evers, A. (2005). Mixed Welfare Systems and Hybrid Organizations: Changes in Governance and Provision of Social Services. International Journal of Public Administration, 28(9–10), 737–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Folkestad, B., Christensen, D. A., Strømsnes, K., & Selle, P. (2015). Frivillig innsats i Noreg 1998–2014. Kva kjenneteikner dei frivillige og kva har endra seg?. Report 2015: 4. Bergen/Oslo, Norway: Centre for Research on Civil Society and Voluntary Sector.Google Scholar
  14. Fossum, J. E., & Trenz, H.-J. (2006). The EU’s Fledgling Society: From deafening silence to critical voice in European constitution-making. Journal of Civil Society, 2(1), 57–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frifond. (18.08.2016). Hvem kan få støtte fra Frifond?. Retrieved from http://www.frifond.no/hjelp/hvem-stottes
  16. Grønlie, T. (1991). Velferdskommunen. In A. H. Nagel (Ed.), Velferdskommunen. Bergen, Norway: Alma Mater.Google Scholar
  17. Gulbrandsen, T., & Ødegård, G. (2011). Frivillige organisasjoner i en ny tid. Utfordringer og endringsprosesser. Report 2011: 1. Oslo/Bergen, Norway: Centre for Research on Civil Society and Voluntary Sector.Google Scholar
  18. Heitmann, J. H. (2013). Som en blixt från klar himmel. In L. Trägårdh, P. Selle, L. S. Henriksen, & H. Hallin (Eds.), Civilsamhället klämt mellan stat och kapital: Velferd, mångfald, framtid (pp. 102–117). Stockholm, Sweden: SNS-förlag.Google Scholar
  19. Henriksen, L. S. (2013). Det avgränsade civilsamhället. In L. Trägårdh, P. Selle, L. S. Henriksen, & H. Hallin (Eds.), Civilsamhället klämt mellan stat och kapital: Velferd, mångfald, framtid (pp. 64–74). Stockholm, Sweden: SNS-förlag.Google Scholar
  20. Henriksen, L. S., Zimmer, A., & Smith, S. R. (2012). On the Eve of Convergence? The transformation of Social Service Provision in Denmark, Germany and the US. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 23(2), 458–501.Google Scholar
  21. Innst. 358 L. (2015–2016). Innstilling fra næringskomiteen om Lov om offentlige anskaffelser (anskaffelsesloven). Stortinget.Google Scholar
  22. Johansson, H., Kassman, A., & Scaramuzzino, R. (2011). Staten och det civila samhällets organisationer i ett föränderligt välfärdssamhälle. Perspektiv på en överenskommelse. Report. Stockholm, Sweden: Överenskommelsen.Google Scholar
  23. Kohler-Koch, B., & Quittkat, C. (2013). De-Mystification of Participatory Democracy. EU Governance and Civil Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Kuhnle, S., & Selle, P. (1990). Meeting needs in a welfare state: Relations between government and voluntary organizations in Norway. In A. Ware & R. E. Gooding (Eds.), Needs and welfare (pp. 165–184). London, UK: Sage.Google Scholar
  25. Kuhnle, S., & Selle, P. (1992). Government and voluntary organizations: A relational perspective. In S. Kuhnle & P. Selle (Eds.), Government and voluntary organizations. A relational perspective (pp. 1–33). Aldershot, UK: Avebury.Google Scholar
  26. Lægreid, P., & Rykkja, L. H. (2015). Organizing for “wicked problems” – analyzing coordination arrangements in two policy areas. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 28(6), 475–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lægreid, P., & Rykkja, L. H. (2016). Norway: managerialism, incrementalism and collaboration. In G. Hammerschmid, S. Van de Walle, R. Andrews, & P. Bezes (Eds.), Public administration reforms in Europe. The view from the top (pp. 151–161). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lee, I. (03.11.2015). Lover kokebok om sosialt entreprenørskap. Retrieved from http://sosentkonferansen.no/lover-kokebok-om-sosialt-entreprenorskap/
  29. Loga, J. (2010). Livskvalitet. Betydning av kultur og frivillighet for helse, trivsel og lykke. En kunnskapsoversikt. Report 2010: 1. Oslo/Bergen, Norway: Centre for Research on Civil Society and Voluntary Sector.Google Scholar
  30. Loga, J., Eimhjellen, I., Eschweiler, J., Ingstad, E. L., Stokstad, S., & Winsvold, M. (2016). Sosiale entreprenører – partnerskap for nye løsninger. Report 2016: 1. Bergen, Norway: Uni Research Rokkansenteret.Google Scholar
  31. Lorentzen, H. (1994). Frivillighetens integrasjon. Staten og de frivillige velferdsprodusentene. Oslo, Norway: Universitetsforlaget.Google Scholar
  32. Lorentzen, H. (2004). Fellesskapets fundament. Sivilsamfunnet og individualismen. Oslo, Norway: Pax.Google Scholar
  33. Lorentzen, H. (2010). Statlige tilskudd til frivillige organisasjoner. En empirisk kartlegging. Report 2010: 4. Oslo/Bergen, Norway: Centre for Research on Civil Society and Voluntary Sector.Google Scholar
  34. Lundström, T., & Wijkström, F. (1997). The Nonprofit Sector in Sweden. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Melby, K., Pylkänen, A., Rosenbeck, B., & Wetterberg, C. C. (2006). Inte ett ord om kärlek. Ekteskap och politik i Norden ca 1850–1930. Göteborg, Sweden: Makadam Förlag.Google Scholar
  36. Ministry of Culture. (2012a). Historikk. Retrieved 03.05.2012 from http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/kud/dep/org/historikk-2.html?id=449414
  37. Ministry of Culture. (2012b). Forskriftsendring for grasrotandelen på høring. Retrieved 03.10.2012 from http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/kud/pressesenter/pressemeldinger/2012/forskriftsendring-for-grasrotandelen-pa-.html?id=699137
  38. Nagel, A.-H. (Ed.). (1991). Velferdskommunen. Kommunenes rolle i utviklingen av velferdsstaten. Bergen, Norway: Alma Mater.Google Scholar
  39. Norsk Tipping. (2016). Grasrotandelen knuste alle rekorder. Retrieved 16.08.2016 from https://www.norsk-tipping.no/artikler/grasrotandelen-knuste-alle-rekorder
  40. NOU. (2011:11). Innovasjon i omsorg. Ministry of Health and Care Services.Google Scholar
  41. NOU. (2016:12). Ideell opprydding. Statlig dekning av ideelle organisasjoners historiske pensjonskostnader. Ministry of Culture.Google Scholar
  42. Office of the Prime Minister. (2013). Political platform for a government formed by the Conservative Party and the Progress Party, Sundvolden, 07.10.13. Retrieved 16.08.2016 from https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dokumenter/political-platform/id743014/
  43. Øverbø, S. L. (2016). Fagforbundet: – Barnehagebaroner blir søkkrike på våre skattepenger. NRK 06.06.2016. Retrieved 12.09.2016 from https://www.nrk.no/telemark/fagforbundet-kritiserer-storebarnehagekjeder-for-oppkjop-1.12981580.
  44. Rokkan, S. (1966). Norway: Numerical democracy and corporate pluralism. In R. A. Dahl (Ed.), Political opposition in western democracies (pp. 70–115). New Heaven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Selle, P. (1999). Organisasjonssamfunnet – eit statsreiskap? In T. Grønlie & P. Selle (Eds.), Ein Stat? Fristillingas fire ansikt (pp. 141–178). Oslo, Norway: Samlaget.Google Scholar
  46. Selle, P. (2008). Forståinga av sivilsamfunnet. Er det berre opp til augo som ser? Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning, 49(4), 613–624.Google Scholar
  47. Selle, P. (2013). Reflektioner kring medlemsmodellens betydelse. In L. Trägårdh, P. Selle, L. S. Henriksen, & H. Hallin (Eds.), Civilsamhället klämt mellan stat och kapital: Velferd, mångfald, framtid (pp. 49–63). Stockholm, Sweden: SNS-förlag.Google Scholar
  48. Selle, P. (2016). Frivillighetens marginalisering. Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning, 19(1), 76–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Selle, P., & Berven, N. (2001). Kvinner, organisering, makt. In N. Berven & P. Selle (Eds.), Svekket kvinnemakt. De frivillige organisasjonene og velferdsstaten (pp. 9–37). Oslo, Norway: Gyldendal Akademisk.Google Scholar
  50. Selle, P., & Øymyr, B. (1995). Frivillig organisering og demokrati: Det frivillige organisasjonssamfunnet endrar seg 1940–1990. Oslo, Norway: Det Norske Samlaget.Google Scholar
  51. Selle, P., & Wollebæk, D. (2010). Why social democracy is not a civil society regime in Norway. Journal of Political Ideologies, 15(3), 289–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sivesind, K. H. (2007). Frivillig sektor i Norge 1997–2004. Frivillig arbeid, medlemskap, sysselsetting og økonomi. Report 2007:10. Oslo, Norway: Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
  53. Sivesind, K. H. (2008). Halvveis til Soria Moria. Ikke-kommersielle velferdstjenester, politikkens blinde flekk?. Report 2008:3. Oslo, Norway: Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
  54. Sivesind, K. H. (2013). Ideella välfärdstjänster: en lösning på den nordiska modellens framtida utmaningar? In L. Trägårdh, P. Selle, L. S. Henriksen, & H. Hallin (Eds.), Civilsamhället klämt mellan stat och kapital: Velferd, mångfald, framtid (pp. 75–88). Stockholm, Sweden: SNS-förlag.Google Scholar
  55. Sivesind, K. H. (2014). Filantropi i Norge – oversikt og trender. Oslo, Norway: Ministry of Culture.Google Scholar
  56. Sivesind, K. H. (2017). The changing roles of for-profit and nonprofit welfare provision in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. In K. H. Sivesind & J. Saglie (Eds.), Promoting active citizenship? Markets and choice in Scandinavian welfare (pp. 33–74). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sivesind, K. H., & Saglie, J. (Eds.). (2017). Promoting active citizenship. Markets and choice in Scandinavian welfare. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  58. Sivesind, K. H., Segaard, S. B., & Trætteberg, H. S. (2016). Mot en ny skandinavisk velferdsmodell?. Report 2016:1. Oslo, Norway: Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
  59. Sivesind, K. H., & Selle, P. (2010). Civil society in the Nordic countries: Between displacement and vitality. In R. Alapuro & H. Stenius (Eds.), Nordic Associations in a European perspective (pp. 89–120). Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.Google Scholar
  60. Skocpol, T. (2003). Diminished democracy. From membership to management in American Civic Life. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  61. Smith, S. R. (2016). Voluntary organizations and the welfare state: Is it time for a new paradigm?. Paper delivered at the European Consortium of Political Research (ECPR) conference, Prague, 8–11 September 2016.Google Scholar
  62. Smith, S. R., & Phillips, S. D. (2017). Social services in an era of austerity and competition. Paper delivered at the European Consortium of Political Research (ECPR) conference, Oslo, 7–9 September 2017.Google Scholar
  63. St.meld. no. 27. (1996–1997). Om statens forhold til frivillige organisasjoner. Oslo, Norway: Ministry of Culture.Google Scholar
  64. St.meld. no. 39. (2006–2007). Frivillighet for alle. Oslo, Norway: Ministry of Culture and Church Affairs.Google Scholar
  65. St.meld. no. 44. (1997–1998). Tilleggsmelding om statens forhold til frivillige organisasjoner. Oslo, Norway: Ministry of Culture.Google Scholar
  66. Statistics Norway. (2011). Satellite account for non-profit institutions, 2009. Retrieved 22.09.2016 from https://www.ssb.no/en/nasjonalregnskap-og-konjunkturer/statistikker/orgsat/aar/2011-12-19
  67. Statistics Norway. (2016a). Satellite account for non-profit institutions, 2014. Retrieved 09.02.2017 from https://www.ssb.no/en/nasjonalregnskap-og-konjunkturer/statistikker/orgsat/aar/2016-10-20
  68. Statistics Norway. (2016b). Table 07126: Children’s institutions. Contractual man-years adjusted for long-term leaves, by region, age of the personnel and ownership of the institution. www.ssb.no/statistikkbanken
  69. Stenius, H. (2010). Nordic Associational life in a European and an inter-nordic perspective. In R. Alapuro & H. Stenius (Eds.), Nordic Associations in a European perspective (pp. 29–86). Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Stortinget. (2010). Representantforslag om innføring av samfunnskontrakt for å bedre samspillet mellom offentlig sektor og ideell sektor. Retrieved 22.09.2016 from https://www.stortinget.no/no/Saker-og-publikasjoner/Saker/Sak/?p=45802
  71. Strachwitz, R., & Zimmer, A. (2010). The third sector and political ideologies: unpacking relations between organized civil society and the state. Journal of Political Ideologies, 15(3), 273–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Strømsnes, K. (2013). Norsk frivillighetspolitik: Ny och enhetlig? In L. Trägårdh, P. Selle, L. S. Henriksen, & H. Hallin (Eds.), Civilsamhället klämt mellan stat och kapital: Velferd, mångfald, framtid (pp. 89–101). Stockholm, Sweden: SNS-förlag.Google Scholar
  73. The Association of NGOs in Norway. (2016). About the Association of NGOs in Norway. Retrieved 18.05.2016 from http://www.frivillighetnorge.no/no/english/
  74. The Government. (2015). Vil ha mer samarbeid mellom kommunene og frivilligheten. Press release 10.09.2015. Retrieved 16.08.2016 from https://www.regjeringen.no/no/aktuelt/vil-ha-mer-samarbeid-mellom-kommunene-og-frivilligheten/id2439234/
  75. Trägård, L. (Ed.) (2007). State and Civil Society in Northern Europe. The Swedish Model Reconsidered. New York, NY: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  76. Trägårdh, L., Selle, P., Henriksen, L. S., & Hallin, H. (Eds.). (2013). Civilsamhället klämt mellan stat och kapital: Välfärd, mångfald, framtid. Stockholm, Sweden: SNS-förlag.Google Scholar
  77. Tranøy, B. S., & Østerud, Ø. (Eds.). (2001). Den fragmenterte staten. Oslo, Norway: Gyldendal Akademisk.Google Scholar
  78. Tranvik, T., & Selle, P. (2005). State and citizen in Norway: Organizational Society and the state-municipal relations. West European Politics, 28(4), 852–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tranvik, T., & Selle, P. (2007). The rise and fall of popular mass movements: Organizational change and globalization – the Norwegian case. Acta Sociologica, 50(1), 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Trygstad, S., Lorentzen, T., Løken, E., Moland, L., & Skalle, N. (2006). Den nye staten. Omfang og effekter av omstillingene i staten 1990–2004. Report 530. Oslo, Norway: Fafo.Google Scholar
  81. Wollebæk, D., & Selle, P. (2002). Det nye organisasjonssamfunnet. Demokrati i omforming. Bergen, Norway: Fagbokforlaget.Google Scholar
  82. Wollebæk, D., & Sivesind, K. H. (2010). Fra folkebevegelse til filantropi? Frivillig innsats i Norge 1997–2009. Report 2010:3. Oslo/Bergen, Norway: Centre for Research on Civil Society and Voluntary Sector.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Comparative PoliticsUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  2. 2.Department of Business AdministrationWestern Norway University of Applied ScienceBergenNorway

Personalised recommendations