Memories of 1914 underpinned the overall sense of dread in the first few volatile days after the attack. Governments quickly reexamined their policies in the wake of the loss of two of Europe’s most prominent political leaders. Italy and Hungary scrambled to deny any responsibility and divert attention, even as evidence increasingly implicated them both. If Yugoslavia made formal accusations or even issued an ultimatum, a violent reaction would be almost inevitable. The Marseilles attack also made the question of terrorism a matter of serious debate. Some states now began to advocate international action against terrorist organizations. But others feared alienating Italy or provoking Hungary, thereby putting an end to plans for greater political cooperation in Europe, especially in containing Nazi Germany and maintaining peace.