Advertisement

Collectivism Collapses, 1982–91

  • Graeme Gill
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Political Leadership book series (PSPL)

Abstract

The dilemma Gorbachev faced was that both an activist (Khrushchev) and a more passive (Brezhnev) predominant leader had produced significant problems for the Soviet system. It was therefore unclear what leadership model he should seek to adopt. In the event, he went for a more activist model, but with the difference that he sought to carry his colleagues along with him, something in the mode of Lenin. However, the problem was that the radicalization of the political agenda undercut the basis of collective unity. As the established rules of both Soviet and, more narrowly oligarch, politics were called into question, the collective was unable to design an effective response and collapsed.

References

  1. Brown, Archie (ed), Political Leadership in the Soviet Union (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1989).Google Scholar
  2. Brown, Archie, The Gorbachev Factor (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).Google Scholar
  3. Chernyaev, Anatoly, My Six Years with Gorbachev (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  4. Daniels, Robert V., “Political Processes and Generational Change”, Brown (1989), pp. 96–126.Google Scholar
  5. Dunlop, John B., The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the Soviet Empire (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993).Google Scholar
  6. Gill, Graeme, The Collapse of a Single-Party System. The Disintegration of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gorbachev, M.S., “Politicheskii doklad Tsentral’nogo Komiteta KPSS XXVII s’ezdu Kommunisticheskoi partii Sovetskogo Soyuza. Doklad General’nogo sekretarya TsK KPSS tovarishcha Gorbacheva M.S.”, XXVII S’ezd, Gorbachev, (1986), vol. 1, pp. 23–121.Google Scholar
  8. Gorbachev, M.S., Perestroika i novoe myshlenie dlya nashei strany i dlya vsego mira (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury, 1982).Google Scholar
  9. Gorbachev, M.S., Avgustovskii putch. Prichiny i sledstviya (Moscow: Novosti, 1991).Google Scholar
  10. Gorbachev, Mikhail, Memoirs (London: Doubleday, 1996).Google Scholar
  11. Gorbachev, Mikhail, “Iz vystupleniya na zasedanii politbyuro KPSS”, Gorbachev (2008–17a) vol. 2, pp. 155–157.Google Scholar
  12. Gorbachev, M.S., “O perestroike i kadrovoi politike partii”, Gorbachev (2008–17b), vol. 5, pp. 391–451.Google Scholar
  13. Gorbachev, Mikhail, “Oktyabr’ i perestroika: revolyutsiya prodolzhaetsya”, Gorbachev (2008–17c), vol. 8, pp. 406–459.Google Scholar
  14. Gorbachev, M.S., “Perestroika – krovnoe delo naroda”, Gorbachev (2008–17d), vol. 6, pp. 99–119.Google Scholar
  15. Gorbachev, Mikhail, Sobranie sochinenii (Moscow: Ves’ mir izdatel’stvo, 2008–17e), vols. 1–27.Google Scholar
  16. Gorbachev, Mikhail, “Zhivoe tvorchestvo naroda”, Gorbachev (2008–17f), vol. 2, pp. 77–112.Google Scholar
  17. Grachev, Andrei, Gorbachev’s Gamble. Soviet Foreign Policy and the End of the Cold War (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2008).Google Scholar
  18. Ligachev, Yegor, Inside Gorbachev’s Kremlin. The Memoirs of Yegor Ligachev (Boulder: Westview Press, 1996).Google Scholar
  19. Ligachev, Yegor, Kto predal SSSR? (Moscow: Algoritm, 2010).Google Scholar
  20. Materialy plenuma tsentral’nogo komiteta KPSS 5–7 fevralya 1990g (Moscow: Politizdat, 1990).Google Scholar
  21. Materialy plenuma tsentral’nogo komiteta KPSS 11, 14, 16 marta 1990g (Moscow: Politizdat, 1990).Google Scholar
  22. Matlock Jr., Jack F., “Russia: A Big Part in the Big Change”, The New York Review of Books, June 23, 2016, p. 58.Google Scholar
  23. Mawdsley, Evan, & Stephen White, The Soviet Elite from Lenin to Gorbachev. The Central Committee and Its Members, 1917–1991 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  24. Medvedev, Vadim, V kommande Gorbacheva (Moscow: Algoritm, 2016).Google Scholar
  25. Medvedev, Zhores, Andropov. His Life and Death (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983).Google Scholar
  26. Medvedev, Zhores, Gorbachev (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986).Google Scholar
  27. Palazchenko, Pavel, My Years with Gorbachev and Shevardnadze. The Memoir of a Soviet Interpreter (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997).Google Scholar
  28. Prokof’ev, Yuri, Do i Posle Zapreta KPSS. Pervyi sekretar’ MGK KPSS Vospominaet (Moscow: Algoritm, 2005).Google Scholar
  29. Rigby, T.H., “The Soviet Political Executive, 1917-1986”, Brown (1989), pp. 4–53.Google Scholar
  30. Ryzhkov, Nikolai, Perestroika: istoriya predatel’stv (Moscow: Novosti, 1992).Google Scholar
  31. Sakwa, Richard, “A Cleansing Storm: The August Coup and the Triumph of Perestroika”, The Journal of Communist Studies 9, 1, 1993, pp. 131–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shevardnadze, Eduard, Moi vybor v zashchitu demokratii i svobody (Moscow: Novosti, 1991).Google Scholar
  33. Sixsmith, Martin, Moscow Coup. The Death of the Soviet System (London: Simon & Schuster, 1991).Google Scholar
  34. Sobchak, Anatoly, For a New Russia. The Mayor of St Petersburg’s Own Story of the Struggle for Justice and Democracy (New York: The Free Press, 1992).Google Scholar
  35. “Sostav rukovodyashchikh organov tsentral’nogo komiteta partii. Politbyuro i Sekretariat Tsentral’nogo Komiteta KPSS”, Izvestiya TsK KPSS 9, 1990, pp. 7–61.Google Scholar
  36. “Stenogrammy plenumov TsK partii. Plenum TsK KPSS – oktyabr’ 1987 goda. Stenograficheskii otchet”, Izvestiya TsK KPSS 2, 1989, pp. 209–287.Google Scholar
  37. Taubman, William, Gorbachev. His Life and Times (London: Simon & Schuster, 2017).Google Scholar
  38. V Politbyuro KPSS. Po zapisyam Anatoliya Chernyaeva, Vadima Medvedeva, Georgiya Shakhnazarova (1985–1991) (Moscow: Gorbachev-Fond, 2006).Google Scholar
  39. Wells, David, & John Miller, A Directory of Heads and Deputy Heads of CPSU Central Committee Departments 1952–1991 (Manchester, Lorton Paper 8, 1993).Google Scholar
  40. White, Stephen, Gorbachev and After (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).Google Scholar
  41. Willerton, John P., Patronage and Power in the USSR (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992).Google Scholar
  42. XIX vsesoyuznaya konferentsiya kommunisticheskoi partii sovetskogo soyuza. 28 iyunya – 1 iyulya 1988 goda. Stenograficheskii otchet (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury, 1988).Google Scholar
  43. XXVII S’ezd Kommunistichiskoi partii Sovetskogo Soyuza. 25 fevralya – 6 marta 1986 goda. Stenograficheskii otchet (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury, 1986).Google Scholar
  44. Yakovlev, Aleksandr, Muki Prochteniya Bytiya. Perestroika: nadezhdi i real’nosti (Moscow: Novosti, 1991).Google Scholar
  45. Yakovlev, Aleksandr, Predislovie Obval Posleslovie (Moscow, Novosti, 1992).Google Scholar
  46. Yeltsin, Boris, Ispoved’ na zadannuyu temu (Moscow: Assotsiatsiya “Novyi stil’’, 1990).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Government and International RelationsUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations