Advertisement

Rule by Pure Oligarchy, 1923–29

  • Graeme Gill
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Political Leadership book series (PSPL)

Abstract

The predominant leader model of collective leadership could not be consolidated during this period because none of the oligarchs was of sufficient standing for the others to accept his primacy. A sub-set within the oligarchy—principally Trotsky, Zinoviev, Bukharin and Stalin—struggled to achieve primacy. The resultant factional conflict generated significant rules structuring the conduct of leadership politics and thereby the contours of collective leadership. The result of the factional conflict was the emergence of Stalin as the predominant leader right at the end of the period, and the chapter explains how this came about.

References

  1. Adibekov, G.M., K.M. Anderson, & L.A. Rogovaya (eds), Politbyuro TsK RKP(b)-VKP(b). Povestki dnya zasedanii. Tom 1. 1919–29, Katalog (Moscow: ROSSPEN, 2000).Google Scholar
  2. Bazhanov, Boris, “Stalin Closely Observed”, G.R. Urban (ed), Stalinism. Its Impact on Russia and the World (London: Maurice Temple Smith, 1982), pp. 6–30.Google Scholar
  3. Bazhanov, Boris, Vospominaniya byvshego sekretarya stalina (Paris: Tret’ya volna, 1980), p. 49.Google Scholar
  4. Chuev, F., Sto sorok besed s Molotovym. Iz dnevnika F. Chueva (Moscow: Terra, 1991).Google Scholar
  5. Cohen, Stephen F., Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution. A Political Biography 1888–1938 (London: Wildwood House, 1974).Google Scholar
  6. Daniels, Robert V., “Stalin’s Rise to Dictatorship”, Alexander Dallin & Alan Westin (eds), Politics in the Soviet Union (New York: Harcourt Brace & World Inc., 1966), pp. 1–38.Google Scholar
  7. Daniels, Robert Vincent, The Conscience of the Revolution. Communist Opposition in Soviet Russia (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1969).Google Scholar
  8. Danilov, V.P. et al. (eds), Kak lomali NEP. Stenogrammy plenumov TsK VKP(b) 1928–1929 gg. (Moscow: Mezhdunarodnyi fond ‘Demokratiya’, 2000), vols 1–5.Google Scholar
  9. Davies, R.W., “Grain, Class, and Politics During NEP: The Politburo Meeting of December 10, 1925”, Gregory & Naimark (2008), pp. 181–198.Google Scholar
  10. Dvenadtsatyi s’ezd RKP(b). 17–25 aprelya 1923 goda. Stenograficheskii otchet (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury, 1968).Google Scholar
  11. Ennker, Benno, Formirovanie kul’ta Lenina v Sovetskom Soyuze (Moscow: ROSSPEN, 2011).Google Scholar
  12. Fitzpatrick, Sheila, On Stalin’s Team. The Years of Living Dangerously in Soviet Politics (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 2015).Google Scholar
  13. Getty, J. Arch, Practicing Stalinism. Bolsheviks, Boyars and the Persistence of Tradition (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2013).Google Scholar
  14. Gill, Graeme, The Origins of the Stalinist Political System (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gregory, Paul R., & Norman Naimark (eds), The Lost Politburo Transcripts. From Collective Rule to Stalin’s Dictatorship (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008). Google Scholar
  16. Gregory, Paul, “The Politburo’s Role as Revealed by the Lost Transcripts”, Gregory & Naimark (2008), pp. 16–37.Google Scholar
  17. Harris, James, “Stalin as General Secretary: The Appointments Process and the Nature of Stalin’s Power”, Sarah Davies & James Harris (eds), Stalin. A New History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 63–82.Google Scholar
  18. Harrison, Mark, “Prices in the Politburo, 1927: Market Equilibrium Versus the Use of Force”, Gregory & Naimark (2008), pp. 224–246.Google Scholar
  19. Khlevniuk, Oleg V., Stalin. New Biography of a Dictator (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).Google Scholar
  20. Korotkov, A.V., A.D. Chernev, & A.A. Chernobaev (eds), Na prieme u Stalina. Tetradi (zhurnaly) zapisei lits, prinyatykh I.V. Stalinym (1924–1953gg) (Moscow: Novyi khronograf, 2008). Google Scholar
  21. Kosheleva, L.P., L.A. Rogovaya, & O.V. Khlevnyuk (eds), Stenogrammy zasedanii Politbyuro TsK RKP(b)-VKP(b) 1923–1938gg. Tom 3 1928-1938gg (Moscow: ROSSPEN, 2007). Google Scholar
  22. Kotkin, Stephen, Stalin. Vol. I. Paradoxes of Power, 1878–1928 (New York: Penguin Press, 2014).Google Scholar
  23. Kotkin Stephen, Stalin Vol. II: Waiting for Hitler, 1928–1941 (London: Allen Lane, 2017).Google Scholar
  24. KPSS v rez., Kommunisticheskaya partiya sovetskogo soyuza v rezolyutsiyakh i resheniyakh s’ezdov, konferentsii i plenumov tsk (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury, 1983–87), vols. 1–14. Google Scholar
  25. Lenin, V.I., “Pis’mo k s’ezdu” and “Dobavlenie”, V.I. Lenin, Pol’noe sobranie sochinenii (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury, 1982), vol. 45, pp. 343–346. Google Scholar
  26. Lewin, Moshe, Lenin’s Last Struggle (New York: Pluto Press, 1968).Google Scholar
  27. Lih, Lars T., Oleg V. Naumov & Oleg V. Khlevniuk (eds), Stalin’s Letters to Molotov 1925–1936 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995).Google Scholar
  28. Merridale, Catherine, Moscow Politics and the Rise of Stalin. The Communist Party in the Capital, 1925–32 (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1990).Google Scholar
  29. Mikoyan, Anastas Ivanovich, Tak bylo. Razmyshleniya i minuvshem (Moscow: Tsentrpoligraf, 2014).Google Scholar
  30. Montefiore, Simon Sebag, Stalin. The Court of the Red Tsar (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2003).Google Scholar
  31. Monty, Christopher S., “The Central Committee Secretariat, the Nomenklatura, and the Politics of Personnel Movement in the Soviet Order, 1921–1927”, The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review 39, 2, 2012, pp. 166–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. “O gruppe T. Bukharina” (Decision of CC plenum 17 November 1929), Danilov et al. (2000), vol. 5, p. 543. Google Scholar
  33. “O vystuplenii t. Trotskogo” (Decision of the CC plenum, 17–20 January 1925), KPSS v rez. (1984), vol. 3, pp. 323–331. Google Scholar
  34. “O zayavleniyakh t. Trotskogo i 46-ti tovarishchei (Preobrazhensky, Osinsky, Sapronov i dr.)” (Joint CC-CCC plenum 23–27 October 1923) KPSS v rez. (1984), vol. 3, pp. 141–142. Google Scholar
  35. “Ob antipartiinykh vystupleniyakh liderov oppozitsii”, KPSS v rez. (1984), vol. 4, pp. 253–255. Google Scholar
  36. “Ob itogakh diskussii i o melkoburzhuaznom uklone v partii”, KPSS v rez. (1984), vol. 3, pp. 152–160. Google Scholar
  37. “Ob oppozitsionnom bloke v VKP (b)”, KPSS v rez. (1984), vol. 4, pp. 105–116. Google Scholar
  38. “Po delu tov. Lashevicha i dr. i o edinstve partii”, KPSS v rez. (1984), vol. 4, pp. 48–54. Google Scholar
  39. “Po organizatsionnomu voprosu”, Vos’moi (1959), pp. 423–429. Google Scholar
  40. “Politika khlebozagotovok v svyazi s obshchim khozyaistvennym polozheniem”, Danilov et al. (2000), vol. 2, pp. 588–592.Google Scholar
  41. Pyatnadtsatyi s’ezd VKP(b). Dekabr’ 1927 goda. Stenograficheskii otchet (Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury, 1962), vols. 1 & 2.Google Scholar
  42. Rees, E.A. (ed), The Nature of Stalin’s Dictatorship. The Politburo, 1924–1953 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004a).Google Scholar
  43. Rees, E.A. “Stalin as Leader 1924–1937: From Oligarch to Dictator”, E.A. Rees (ed), The Nature of Stalin’s Dictatorship. The Politburo, 1924–1953 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004b), pp. 19–58.Google Scholar
  44. Rees, E.A., Iron Lazar. A Political Biography of Lazar Kaganovich (London: Anthem Press, 2013).Google Scholar
  45. “Rezolyutsiya ob’edinennogo zasedaniya politbyuro TsK i Prezidiuma TsKK po vnutripartiinym delam ot 9 fevralya 1929 goda”, Danilov et al. (2000), vol. 4, pp. 540–548.Google Scholar
  46. Rigby, T.H., “Staffing USSR Incorporated: The Origins of the Nomenklatura System”, Soviet Studies XL, 4, 1988, pp. 523–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rosenfeldt, Niels Erik, The “Special” World. Stalin’s Power Apparatus and the Soviet System’s Secret Structures of Communication (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 2009), vols. 1 & 2.Google Scholar
  48. Schapiro, Leonard, The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (London: Eyre & Spottiswood, 1970).Google Scholar
  49. Service, Robert, “The Way They Talked Then: The Discourse of Politics in the Soviet Party Politburo in the Late 1920s”, Gregory & Naimark (2008), pp. 121–134.Google Scholar
  50. “Sostav rukovodyashchikh organov tsentral’nogo komiteta partii – Politbyuro (Prezidiuma), Orgbyuro, Secretariata TsK (1919–1990gg)”, Izvestiya TsK KPSS, 7, 1990, pp. 69–82. Google Scholar
  51. Stalin, J.V., Sochineniya (Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury, 1952), vols. 1–14. Google Scholar
  52. Stalin, J.V., “O lenine. Rech’ na vechere kremlevskikh kursantov 28 yanvarya 1924 g”, Sochineniya (1952), vol. 6, pp. 52–64.Google Scholar
  53. Stalin, J.V., “Ob osnovakh leninizma”, Sochineniya (1952), vol. 6, pp. 88–188.Google Scholar
  54. Stalin, J.V., “Oktyabr’skaya revolyutsiya i taktika russkikh kommunistov”, Sochineniya (1952), vol. 6, pp. 358–401.Google Scholar
  55. Stalin J.V., “Po povodu smerti lenina. Rech’ na II Vsesoiuznom s’ezde Sovetov 26 yanvarya 1924 g”, Sochineniya (1952), vol. 6, pp. 46–51.Google Scholar
  56. Stalin, J.V., “Trotskizm ili leninizm? Rech’ na plenume kommunisticheskoi fraktsii VTsSPS 19 noyabrya 1924 g”, Sochineniya (1952), vol. 6, pp. 324–357. Google Scholar
  57. Stalin, J.V., Voprosy leninizma (Moscow–Leningrad, 1926).Google Scholar
  58. “Stenogramma zasedeniya Politbyuro TsK VKP(b) po voprosu ‘Ob urokakh angliiskii vseobshchei stachki’ 3 yunya 1926 g”, Kosheleva, Rogovaya & Khlevnyuk (2007), Tom 3, pp. 743–911.Google Scholar
  59. Torchinov, V.A., & A.M. Leontyuk, Vokrug stalina. Istoriko-biograficheskii spravochnik (St Petersburg: Filalogicheskii fakul’tet Sankt-Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2000).Google Scholar
  60. Trinadtsatyi s’ezd RKP(b). Mai 1924 goda. Stenograficheskii otchet (Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatgel’stvo politicheskoi literatury, 1963).Google Scholar
  61. Trotsky, L.D., O Lenine; Materialy dlya biografiya (Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo, 1924a).Google Scholar
  62. Trotsky, L.D., Uroki oktyabrya (Leningrad: Berlinskoe Knigoizdatel’stvo, 1924b).Google Scholar
  63. Trotsky, L.D., Trotsky’s Diary in Exile 1935 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1959; trans Elena Zarudnaya).Google Scholar
  64. Trotsky, Leon, The New Course and the Struggle for the New Course (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1965).Google Scholar
  65. Trotsky, Leon, Stalin. An Appraisal of the Man and His Influence. Volume Two. The Revolutionary in Power (London: Panther, 1969; trans & ed Charles Malamuth; originally published 1941).Google Scholar
  66. Trotsky, Leon, My Life (New York: Pathfinder Press, 1970).Google Scholar
  67. Tumarkin, Nina, The Lenin Cult in Soviet Russia (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983).Google Scholar
  68. Tucker, Robert C., Stalin as Revolutionary 1879–1929. A Study in History and Personality (London: Chatto & Windus, 1974).Google Scholar
  69. Vatlin, Alexander, “‘Class Brothers Unite!’ The British General Strike and the Formation of the ‘United Opposition’”, Gregory & Naimark (2008), pp. 57–77.Google Scholar
  70. Velikanova, Ol’ga, Obraz Lenina v massovom vospriyatii sovetskikh lyudei po arkhivnym materialam (Lewiston: The Edward Mellon Press, 2001).Google Scholar
  71. Vos’moi s’ezd RKP(b). Mart 1919 goda. Protokoly (Moscow: Gosudarstvennoi izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury, 1959). Google Scholar
  72. Wheatcroft, Stephen G., “From Team-Stalin to Degenerate Tyranny”, E.A. Rees (ed), The Nature of Stalin’s Dictatorship. The Politburo, 1924–1953 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), pp. 79–107.Google Scholar
  73. Woodruff, David M., “The Politburo on Gold, Industrialization, and the International Economy, 1925–1926”, Gregory & Naimark (2008), pp. 199–223.Google Scholar
  74. XIV s’ezd vsesoyuznoi kommunisticheskoi partii (b). 18–31 dekabrya 1925 g. Stenograficheskii otchet (Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo, 1926).Google Scholar
  75. Yudin, K.A., “Matvei Fedorovich Shkiryatov”, Voprosy istorii 2, 2015, pp. 36–51. Google Scholar
  76. Zayavlenie XV s’ezdu VKP (b) po povodu predlozheniya ob isklyuchenii oppozitsii iz partii”, Pyatnadtsatyi (1962), vol. 2, pp. 1398–1400.Google Scholar
  77. Zinoviev, G.Ye., Leninizm. Vvedenie v izuchenie leninizma (Leningrad: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo, 1925).Google Scholar
  78. Zinoviev, G. et al., Ob ‘urokakh oktyabrya’ (Leningrad: Rabochee izdatel’stvo ‘Priboi’, 1924).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Government and International RelationsUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations