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To Cite, or Not to Cite? Detecting Citation Contexts in Text

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNISA,volume 10772)


Recommending citations for scientific texts and other texts such as news articles has recently attracted considerable amount of attention. However, typically, the existing approaches for citation recommendation do not explicitly incorporate the question of whether a given context (e.g., a sentence), for which citations are to be recommended, actually “deserves” citations. Determining the “cite-worthiness” for each potential citation context as a step before the actual citation recommendation is beneficial, as (1) it can reduce the number of costly recommendation computations to a minimum, and (2) it can more closely approximate human-citing behavior, since neither too many nor too few recommendations are provided to the user. In this paper, we present a method based on a convolutional recurrent neural network for classifying potential citation contexts. Our experiments show that we can significantly outperform the baseline solution [1] and reduce the number of citation recommendations to about 1/10.


  • Citation context
  • Citation recommendation
  • Recommender systems
  • Deep learning

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    The source code is available online at

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    All data sets are available online at

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Michael Färber is an International Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). The work was partially supported by MIC SCOPE (171507010). The Titan Xp used for this research was donated by the NVIDIA Corporation.

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Correspondence to Michael Färber .

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Färber, M., Thiemann, A., Jatowt, A. (2018). To Cite, or Not to Cite? Detecting Citation Contexts in Text. In: Pasi, G., Piwowarski, B., Azzopardi, L., Hanbury, A. (eds) Advances in Information Retrieval. ECIR 2018. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 10772. Springer, Cham.

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