Analytical Methods for the Determination of Furosine in Food Products

  • Rajeev K. SinglaEmail author
  • Ashok K. Dubey
  • Sara M. Ameen
  • Shana Montalto
  • Salvatore Parisi
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science book series (BRIEFSMOLECULAR)


The importance of Maillard reaction products is correlated with two main problems concerning the production and the commercialisation of foods and beverages: the loss of nutritional properties caused by Maillard reaction under drastic conditions and/or the possible risk caused by the presence of one or more Maillard reaction products in foods. The ‘Maillard reaction’ is a complex group of cascade reactions; parallel reaction chains may also cross themselves with interesting and perhaps unpredictable results. The final products are brownish polymers named melanoidins with notable molecular weights and variegated composition and structures. These polymers could not be obtained without the active role of several intermediates including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, diacetyl, pyruvaldehyde, furosine. In particular, furosine has been studied thoroughly in the last 40 years because of its correlation with heat treatments and thermal effects on proteins. This chapter is dedicated to furosine and related analytical methods concerning food matrices.


Amino compound Capillary zone electrophoresis Furosine Maillard reaction Melanoidins Reducing sugar Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography 



Capillary zone electrophoresis




Maillard reaction product


Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography


Solid phase extraction


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajeev K. Singla
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ashok K. Dubey
    • 1
  • Sara M. Ameen
    • 2
  • Shana Montalto
    • 3
  • Salvatore Parisi
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Biological Sciences and EngineeringNetaji Subhas Institute of TechnologyDwarkaIndia
  2. 2.Medical Research Laboratories, Faculty of ScienceHelwan UniversityCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Food Safety ConsultantFloridiaItaly
  4. 4.Industrial ConsultantPalermoItaly

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