Future Challenges: The Sociology of Racial and Ethnic Relations

  • Joe R. Feagin
  • Hernán Vera
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)


These concluding remarks demonstrate that systemic racism involves the institutionalized patterns of subordinate and dominant societal positions, respectively, for people of color and for whites in a white-controlled, hierarchically arranged society. It reviews the systemic reality of white-imposed racism in the past and present, as it is seen in the exploitative and discriminatory practices of whites targeting people of color—and thus in the significant resources and privileges unjustly gained and legitimated by whites in that process.


Systemic racism Countersystem approach Social justice 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Emeritus Professor of Sociology, University of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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