Nanoparticles-Based Systems for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering
Osteochondral lesions represent one of the major causes of disabilities in the world. These defects are due to degenerative or inflammatory arthritis, but both affect the articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone. Defects from trauma or degenerative pathology frequently cause severe pain, joint deformity, and loss of joint motion. Osteochondral defects are a significant challenge in orthopedic surgery, due to the cartilage complexity and unique structure, as well as its exposure to high pressure and motion. Although there are treatments routinely performed in the clinical practice, they present several limitations. Tissue engineering can be a suitable alternative for osteochondral defects since bone and cartilage engineering had experienced a notable advance over the years. Allied with nanotechnology, osteochondral tissue engineering (OCTE) can be leveled up, being possible to create advanced structures similar to the OC tissue. In this chapter, the current strategies using nanoparticles-based systems are overviewed. The results of the studies herein considered confirm that advanced nanomaterials will undoubtedly play a crucial role in the design of strategies for treatment of osteochondral defects in the near future.
KeywordsNanoparticles Articular cartilage Subchondral bone Osteochondral defects
- 5.Nukavarapu SP, Amini AR (2011) Optimal scaffold design and effective progenitor cell identification for the regeneration of vascularized bone. In: Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS, Boston, MA, USA.Google Scholar
- 21.Mellor LF, Mohiti-Asli M, Williams J et al (2015) Extracellular calcium modulates Chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells: A novel approach for osteochondral tissue engineering using a single stem cell source. Tissue Eng Part A 21:2323. https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.tea.2014.0572 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 35.Rao JP, Geckeler KE (2011) Polymer nanoparticles: Preparation techniques and size-control parameters. Prog Polym Sci 36:887–913. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2011.01.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar